Water Systems

Hot and cold water systems - design properties, capacities, sizing and more

Building Drains and Sewers

Number of Drainage Fixture Units connected to a building sewer

Capacities of Sewer Pipes

Carrying capacity of sewer and wastewater pipes - gpm and liter per second

Cast Iron Soil Pipe

Cast iron soil pipe dimensions

Cold Water Storage Capacity

Required cold water storage capacity - commonly used fixtures and types of buildings

Cold Water Storage per Occupant

Cold water storage for occupants in common types of buildings as factories, hospitals, houses and more

Converting WSFU to GPM

Converting Water Supply Fixture Units - WSFU - to GPM

Copper Pipe - Water Velocity Limits

The water velocities in copper pipes should not exceed certain limits to avoid erosion

Copper Pipes - Insulation and Heat Loss

Heat loss to surrounding air from insulated copper tubes

Copper Tubes - Dimensions and Working Pressures

Dimensions and working pressures of copper tubes according BS (British Standard) 2871:1972

Copper Tubes - Heat Loss

Heat loss from uninsulated copper tubes at various temperature differences between tube and air

Copper Tubes DWV - Drain, Waste and Vent

Dimensions of copper tube ASTM 306 DWV - Drain Waste and Vent

Cross-Contamination Control

It is fundamental to keep potable water in water supply systems uncontaminated

Design of Domestic Water Supply Systems

Introduction to general design of domestic water-supply systems - with pressurized or gravity tanks

Discharge Height of Vertical Pipes

Height of water discharging from vertical pipes

Discharge Length of Horizontal Pipes

Discharge volume and discharge length of horizontal pipes

Domestic Hot Water System - Design Procedure

A domestic hot water system design procedure

Drain Pipe and Vent Stacks

Drain pipes and stack vent sizing

Drain Waste and Vent Pipe Hanger Spacing

Support of Drain Waste and Vent - DWV- pipes

Drainage Fixture Unit Loads for Sanitary Piping

Maximum Drainage Fixture Unit - DFU - Loads for sanitary piping

Drainage Fixture Unit Values (DFU)

DFU are used to determine the drainage from fixtures and the necessary capacity of the sewer service systems

Drainage-Pipe Pitch

Minimum drainage-pipe pitch

Draining Roof Areas by Vertical Downspouts

Capacity of vertical downspouts

Epoxy Pipes - Support Spacing

Support spacing for reinforced Epoxy fiberglass pipes

Expected Flow in Sanitary Drainage Systems

Calculate expected loads in sanitary drainage systems

Farm Livestock - Water Consumption

Farming and animal water consumption

Fixture Water Requirements

Demand at individual water outlets

Fixture-Unit Requirements on Trap Sizes

Trap size and no. fixture units

Fixtures and Trap Sizes

Recommended trap sizes for different types of fixtures

Flow Coefficient - Cv - and Formulas for Liquids, Steam and Gases - Online Calculators

Flow coefficient and proper design of control valves

Gutter Slopes and Roof Drainage

Roof area drained with gutter slopes

HVAC Diagram - Online Drawing

Draw HVAC diagrams - Online with the Google Drive drawing tool

Horizontal Storm Drains

Capacity of horizontal storm drain piping

Hot Water Consumption of Fixtures

Design hot water consumption of fixtures - basins, showers, sinks and baths

Hot Water Consumption per Occupant

Consumption of hot water per person or occupant

Hot Water Content in Fixtures

Content of hot water in some common used fixtures - basins, sinks and baths

Hot Water Flow Rates to Fixtures

Hot water consumption of some common equipment as basins, sinks, baths and showers

Hot and Cold Water Pipes Sizing

Recommended dimensions of hot and cold water pipes

Hot-Water Storage Tank Dimensions with Capacities

Dimensions and capacities of hot-water storage tanks


Legionella pneumophila - bacterium that thrives in water supply and air conditioning systems - causing Legionnairs disease

Maximum Flow Velocities in Water Systems

Water velocities in pipes and tubes should not exceed certain limits

Modulating Discharge Flow from Centrifugal Pumps

Adapting pump capacity to process demand

Nozzles - Water Discharge Capacity

Nozzles water discharge capacity

P&ID Diagram - Online Drawing

Draw P&ID diagrams - Online with Google Docs

PVC Pipe Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagram

Friction loss (psi/100 ft) and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40

Plumbing Codes

Plumbing or sanitation codes are a set of rules and regulations imposed by cities, counties or states

Properties of Water - Imperial Units

Properties of water - temperature, pressure, specific volume, density and vapor pressure

Public Buildings - Water Supply

Required water supply in public buildings

Rainfall Units Conversions

Convert between rainfall units

Recommended Sizes of Water Supply Lines

Sizing water supply pipes

Reynolds Number

Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - with online calculators

Riser Diagrams

Plumbing sanitary and water riser diagram - example

Septic Systems

A septic system handles the waste from the drain system

Sizing Domestic Hot-Water Heaters

Domestic Hot-Water sizing formulas - heating capacity, recovery rate and power supply

Sizing Water Supply Lines

Sizing water supply service and distribution lines based on Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU)

Sizing and Selection Butterfly Valves

Selecting and sizing butterfly valves for water applications

Stainless Steels Classifications

Stainless steels are commonly grouped into martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels

Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Services

Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Services according ANSI/AWWA C207-01

Stormwater Conductors

Capacity roof drains

Volumetric - Cubic - Thermal Expansion

Cubical temperature expansion - online volumetric expansion calculator

Waste Water - Flow Capacity

In sewage piping and pumping systems the fluid flow rate must be kept within certain limits to avoid operating problems

Water - Suction Flow Velocities

Recommended water flow velocities on suction sides of pumps

Water Control Valves - Calculating Kv Values

Design of water process control valves and their Kv values

Water Delivery Flow Velocities

Required flow velocities in water transport systems - on the delivery side of the pump

Water Discharging through a Hose

Water flow through a hose

Water Hammers

Rapidly closing or openingĀ valves may cause pressure transients in pipelines known as water hammers

Water Supply - Calculating Expected Demand

Calculating of expected demand in water supply service lines

Water Supply Fixture Units - WSFU

WSFU are used to determine water supply to fixtures and their service systems

Water Usage and Activity

Average water usage per activity

Water-distribution Pipe

Water-distribution pipe is the piping located inside a building

Water-service Pipes

A water-service pipe extends from a potable water source to the interior of a building

Yard Fixtures - Water Consumption

Water consumption in garden fixtures

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