Water Systems

Hot and cold water systems - design properties, capacities, sizing and more

Building Drains and Sewers

Number of Drainage Fixture Units connected to a building sewer

Capacities of Sewer Pipes

Carrying capacity of sewer and wastewater pipes - gpm and liter per second

Cast Iron Soil Pipe

Cast iron soil pipe dimensions

Cold Water Storage Capacity

Required cold water storage capacity - commonly used fixtures and types of buildings

Cold Water Storage per Occupant

Cold water storage for occupants in common types of buildings as factories, hospitals, houses and more

Converting WSFU to GPM

Converting WSFU - Water Supply Fixture Units - to GPM

Copper Pipes - Insulation and Heat Loss

Heat loss to surrounding air from insulated copper tubes

Copper Tubes - Dimensions and Working Pressures

Dimensions and working pressures of copper tubes according BS (British Standard) 2871:1972

Copper Tubes - Heat Loss

Heat loss from uninsulated copper tubes at various temperature differences between tube and air

Copper Tubes - Maximum Water Velocites

Water velocity in a copper tube should not exceed certain limits to avoid erosion

Copper Tubes for Drain, Waste and Vent - DWV

Dimensions of copper tubes ASTM 306 DWV - Drain Waste and Vent

Cross-Contamination Control

It is fundamental to keep the potable water in the water supply systems uncontaminated

Design of Domestic Water Supply Systems

Introduction to general design of domestic water-supply systems - with pressurized or gravity tanks

Discharge Height of Vertical Pipes

Height of water discharging from vertical pipes

Discharge Length of Horizontal Pipes

Discharge volume and discharge length of horizontal pipes

Domestic Hot Water System - Design Procedure

A domestic hot water system design procedure

Drain Pipe and Vent Stacks

Drain pipes and vent stack sizing

Drain Waste and Vent Pipe Hanger Spacing

Support of Drain Waste and Vent - DWV - pipes

Drainage Fixture Unit Values - DFU

DFU are used to determine the drainage from fixtures and required capacity of sewer service systems

Drainage Fixtures - Unit Loads and Sanitary Piping

Maximum Drainage Fixture Unit - DFU - loads for sanitary piping

Drainage Pipe Pitch

Minimum pitch of drainage pipes

Draining Roof Areas and Vertical Downspouts

Capacity of vertical downspouts

Epoxy Pipes - Support Spacing

Support spacing for reinforced Epoxy fiberglass pipes

Farm Livestock - Water Consumption

Farming and animal water consumption

Fixture Units - Required Trap Sizes

No. of fixture units and required trap sizes

Fixture Water Requirements

Water outlets demand

Fixtures and Trap Sizes

Recommended trap sizes for different types of fixtures

Flow Coefficient - Cv - and Formulas for Liquids, Steam and Gases - Online Calculators

Flow coefficient and proper design of control valves

Gutter Slopes and Roof Drainage

Roof area drained with gutter slopes

HVAC Diagram - Online Drawing

Draw HVAC diagrams - Online with the Google Drive drawing tool

Horizontal Storm Drain Piping

Capacity of horizontal storm drain piping

Hot Water Consumption of Fixtures

Design hot water consumption of fixtures - basins, showers, sinks and baths

Hot Water Consumption per Occupant

Consumption of hot water per person or occupant

Hot Water Content in Fixtures

Content of hot water in some common used fixtures - basins, sinks and baths

Hot Water Flow Rates to Fixtures

Hot water consumption of some common equipment as basins, sinks, baths and showers

Hot and Cold Water Pipes Sizing

Recommended dimensions of hot and cold water pipes

Hot-Water Storage Tank Dimensions with Capacities

Dimensions and capacities of hot-water storage tanks


Legionella pneumophila - bacterium that thrives in water supply systems and air conditioning systems - causing the Legionnairs disease

Maximum Flow Velocities in Water Systems

Water velocities in pipes and tubes should not exceed certain limits

Modulating Discharge Flow from Centrifugal Pumps

Adapting pump capacity to process demand

Nozzles - Water Discharge Capacity

Nozzles water discharge capacity

P&ID Diagram - Online Drawing

Draw P&ID diagrams - Online with Google Docs

PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagrams

Friction loss (psi/100 ft) and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40

Plumbing Codes

Plumbing or sanitation codes are a set of rules and regulations imposed by cities, counties or states

Properties of Water - Imperial Units

Properties of water - temperature, pressure, specific volume, density and vapor pressure

Public Buildings - Water Supply

Required water supply in public buildings

Rainfall Units Conversions

Convert between rainfall units

Reynolds Number

Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - with online calculators

Riser Diagrams

Plumbing sanitary and water riser diagram - example

Septic Systems

A septic system handles the waste from a drain system

Sizing Domestic Hot-Water Heaters

Domestic Hot-Water sizing equations - heating capacity, recovery rate and power supply

Sizing Water Supply Lines

Sizing water supply service and distribution lines based on Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU)

Sizing and Selection Butterfly Valves

Selecting and sizing butterfly valves for water applications

Stainless Steels Classifications

Stainless steels are commonly grouped into martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels

Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Services

Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Services according ANSI/AWWA C207-01

Stormwater Conductors

Capacity roof drains

Volume Flow in Sanitary Drainage Systems

Calculate expected load in sanitary drainage systems

Volumetric - Cubic - Thermal Expansion

Cubical temperature expansion - online volumetric expansion calculator

Waste Water - Flow Capacity

In sewage piping and pumping systems the fluid flow rate must be kept within certain limits to avoid operating problems

Water - Suction Flow Velocities

Recommended water flow velocities on suction sides of pumps

Water Control Valves - Calculating Kv Values

Design of water process control valves and their Kv values

Water Delivery Flow Velocities

Required flow velocities in water transport systems - on the delivery side of the pump

Water Discharging through a Hose

Water flow through a hose

Water Hammers

Rapidly closing or openingĀ valves may cause pressure transients in pipelines known as water hammers

Water Service Pipe Lines

Water service pipe lines extends from the potable water source to the interior of buildings

Water Supply - Calculating Demand

Calculating expected demand of water supply in service lines

Water Supply Fixture Units - WSFU

WSFU is used to calculate water supply service systems

Water Supply Pipe Lines - Sizing

Sizing of water supply pipe lines

Water Usage and Activity

Average water usage per activity

Water-distribution Pipe

Water-distribution pipe is the piping located inside a building

Yard Fixtures - Water Consumption

Water consumption in garden fixtures

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