Combustion

Boiler house topics - fuels like oil, gas, coal, wood - chimneys, safety valves, tanks - combustion efficiency

API Gravity

Expressing the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products

ASTM Standard - Volume 05.06 Gaseous Fuels, Coal and Coke

An overview of the standards within ASTM Section 5 - Petroleum Products, Lubricants, and Fossil Fuels, - Volume 05.06 Gaseous Fuels, Coal and Coke

Adiabatic Flame Temperature

Adiabatic flame temperature of hydrogen, methane, propane and octane in Kelvin

Air Supply to Boiler Houses

Incomplete combustion may generate carbon monoxide - CO - in the boiler - re-ignition may cause disastrous effects on both personnel and property

Alternative Fuels - Properties

Properties of alternative fuels like Biodiesel, E85, CNG and more

Anthracite Coal

Anthracite coal is available in standardized sizes

Bio Fuels - Energy Content

Common bio fuels and their energy content

Biogas - Typical Composition

Typical composition of biogas produced from household waste

Biomass and Higher Heating Value

HHV of some selected biomass fuels

Boiler Efficiency

Boiler efficiency - combustion gross and net calorific value

Boiler Exhaust Velocity

Exhaust velocities from boilers should be within certain limits

Boiling Point - Fuels

Some common fuels and their boiling points

Chimney Area and Boiler Heat Load

Boiler capacity and required chimney area

Chimney Sizing

Calculating chimney draft and chimney area

Chimneys and Fireplace Sizing

Chimneys and fireplace sizing for fireplaces and stoves burning wood or coal as fuel

Classification of Coal

Classification of coal based on volatile matter and cooking power of clean material

Classification of Gases

Oxidizers, Inert and Flammable gases

Combustion Efficiency and Excess Air

Optimizing a boilers efficiency is important to minimize fuel consumption and unwanted excess to the environment

Combustion Fuels - Carbon Dioxide Emission

Environmental emission of carbon dioxide CO2 when combustion fuels like coal, oil, natural gas, LPG and bio energy

Combustion Processes and Combustion Efficiency

Typical furnace combustion efficiencies - fireplaces, space heater, boiler and more

Combustion Testing

Combusting testing of fuel oil and gas burners

Combustion Values Fuel Gases

Combustion values for some common fuel gases - natural gas, propane and butane - Btu per cubic feet

Dew Point Temperatures of Flue Gases

Flue gas and condensation of water vapor - dew point temperatures

Emission - Biomass Combustion

Emission from combustion of biomass

Energy Content in Biogas

Energy content in biogas produced from municipal and industrial waste

Energy Content in Common Energy Sources

Common heating fuels and their energy content

Explosion Doors in Chimneys

Recommended sizes of explosion doors or draught stabilizers for oil firing installations

Fire Wood - the Cord

The cord is one of the most common units for purchasing fuel wood

Flame Temperatures some Common Gases

Adiabatic flame temperatures for some common fuel gases - propane, butane, acetylene and more - air or oxygen atmosphere

Flash Point - Fuels

Some common fuels and their flash points

Flue Gases - Average Dew Point for Typical Fuels

Average dew point of flue gases for typical fuels

Fossil Fuels - Energy Content

Convert between common fossil fuels units

Fuel Gases - Heating Values

Combustion and heating values of fuel gases - acetylene, blast furnace gas, ethane, biogas and more - Gross and Net values

Fuel Gases - Wobbe Index

Wobbe index for some common fuel gases - propane, butane, methane and more

Fuel Oil Burners

Pot-type, Gun-type and Rotary-type Oil Burners

Fuel Oil Pumps and Suction Capacities

Single stage or double stage fuel oil pumps and their suction capacities

Fuel Oil Storage Tanks

Dimensions of fuel oil storage tanks

Fuel Oil and Combustion Values

Combustion value in Btu/gal for fuel oils No.1 to No.6

Fuel Oils - Viscosities

Fuels oils - their viscosity versus temperature

Fuels - Combustion Air and Flue Gases

Combustion air and flue gas for common fuels - coke, oil, wood, natural gas and more

Fuels - Densities and Specific Volumes

Densities and specific volumes of some common fuels - anthracite, butane, coke, oil, wood and more

Fuels - Exhaust Temperatures

Exhaust and outlet temperatures for some common fuels - natural gas, liquefied petroleum, diesel and more

Fuels - Higher Calorific Values

Higher calorific values for some common fuels - coke, oil, wood, hydrogen and others

Fuels Combustion - Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emission

Emission of Nitrogen Oxides - NOx - when combustion fuels like oil, coal, propane and more

Fuels Properties Database

Online petroleum-based fuels properties database

Fuels and Chemicals - Autoignition Temperatures

The ignition point for some common fuels and chemicals butane, coke, hydrogen, petroleum and more

Gaseous Fuels and Chemical Composition

Chemical composition of some common gaseous fuels - coal gas, natural gas, propane and more

Gases - Explosive and Flammability Concentration Limits

Flame and explosion limits for gases - propane, methane, butane, acetylene and more

Gross Combustion Value for some common Materials

Gross combustion values for some common materials - carbon, methane, ethylene and more - values in Btu/lb

Gross and Net Heating Values for some common Gases

Gross heating and net heating value for some common gases as hydrogen, methane and more

Head Loss in Oil Pipes

Head or pressure loss due to friction in oil pipes - various viscosity and laminar flow.

Heat Loss from Oil Pipes

Heat loss in W/mK and Btu/hr ft oF from oil tubes ranging temperatures 10 - 38oC (50 - 100oF)

Heating Fuels - Cost Comparison

Cost comparison formulas heating fuels - Natural Gas, Propane LP Gas, Fuel Oil and Electricity

Heating Value

The gross (high) and net (low) heating values

Heating Values of Standard Grade Coal

Standard grades of coal and heating values

Hot-Water Generators - Water Circulation Rates

Hot water circulation through boilers - Imperial and SI-units

Intermittent Combustion and Boiler Efficiency

Reduced efficiency by intermittent boiler operation

Liquefied Natural Gas - LNG

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Liquefied Petroleum Gas - LPG

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Methane - Converting between Liquid and Gaseous Units

Convert between common liquid and gaseous LNG or Methane units

Natural Gas Consumption

Natural gas consumption in common equipment - boiling pans, ovens, cookers, kettles and more

Oil Pipes - Recommended Flow Velocities

Flow velocities in oil pipes should be kept within certain limits

Online Fuel Equivalents Calculator

Online calculator to compute the fuels equivalents - oil and gas

Optimal Combustion Processes - Fuels and Excess Air

Stable and efficient combustion conditions require correct mixtures of fuels and oxygen

Paraffins and Alkanes - Combustion Properties

Heating values, air/fuel ratios, flame speed, flame temperatures, ignition temperatures, flash points and flammability limits

Propane

Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Propane - C3H8

Propane Butane Mix - Evaporation Pressure

Evaporation pressure of Propane Butane mixtures

Propane Vapor Pressure

Vapor pressure propane

Roof Termination for Chimneys

Roof terminations for chimneys and single wall vents

Sizing the Boiler Room

Minimum boiler room area

Standard Reference Fuels and their Equivalents

Standard reference fuels and their equivalents

Stoichiometric Combustion

Stoichiometric combustion and excess of air

Stoker Classification

Coal stokers can classified on basis of their coal burning capacity

Wood Species - Weight at various Moisture Contents

Weight of green and air-dry fuel wood

Wood and Bio Mass Heat

Combustion values of wet and dry wood - Btu/pounds, kJ/kg and kcal/kg

Wood and Combustion Heat Values

Firewood and combustion heat values - Pine, Elm, Hickory and many more species

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