Boiler house topics - fuels like oil, gas, coal, wood - chimneys, safety valves, tanks - combustion efficiency

API Gravity

API gravity express the gravity or density for liquid petroleum products

ASTM Standard - Volume 05.06 Gaseous Fuels, Coal and Coke

An overview of the standards within ASTM Section 5 - Petroleum Products, Lubricants, and Fossil Fuels, - Volume 05.06 Gaseous Fuels, Coal and Coke

Adiabatic Flame Temperature

Adiabatic flame temperatures of hydrogen, methane, propane and octane - in Kelvin

Alternative Fuels - Properties

Properties of alternative fuels like Biodiesel, E85, CNG and more

Anthracite Coal

Anthracite coal is available in standardized sizes

Bio Fuels - Energy Content

Some bio fuels and their energy content

Biogas - Energy Content

Energy content in biogas produced from municipal and industrial waste

Biogas - Typical Composition

Typical composition of biogas produced from household waste

Biomasses - Higher Heating Value

HHV of biomass fuels

Boiler Efficiency

Boiler efficiency - combustion gross and net calorific value

Boiler Exhaust Velocity

Limits to boilers exhaust velocites

Boiler Heat Load - Chimney Area

Boiler capacity and required chimney area

Boiler House and Air Supply

Incomplete boiler combustion may generate carbon monoxide - CO - and re-ignition may cause disastrous effects on both personnel and property

Chimney Sizing

Calculate chimney draft and required chimney area

Chimney and Fireplace Sizing

Chimneys and fireplaces for fireplaces and stoves burning wood or coal as fuel

Classification of Coal

Classification of coal based on volatile matter and cooking power of clean material

Classification of Gases

Oxidizers, Inert and Flammable gases

Combustion Efficiency and Excess Air

Optimizing boilers efficiency is important to minimize fuel consumption and unwanted excess to the environment

Combustion Processes and Combustion Efficiency

Typical furnace combustion efficiencies in fireplaces, space heaters, boilers and more

Combustion Testing

Combusting testing of fuel oil and gas burners

Combustion of Fuels and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emission

Emission of Nitrogen Oxides - NOx - with combustion of fuels like oil, coal, propane and more

Combustion of Fuels - Carbon Dioxide Emission

Environmental emission of carbon dioxide CO2 when combustion fuels like coal, oil, natural gas, LPG and bio energy

Emissions from Biomass Combustion

Combustion of biomass and emission

Energy Content in Common Energy Sources

Common heating fuels and their energy content

Explosion Doors in Chimneys

Recommended explosion doors sizes or draught stabilizers in oil firing installations

Fire Wood - the Cord

The cord is one of the most common units for purchasing fuel wood

Flame Temperatures Gases

Adiabatic flame temperatures for common fuel gases - propane, butane, acetylene and more - air or oxygen atmosphere

Flash Point - Fuels

Some common fuels and flash points

Flue Gas - Fuels and Average Dew Points

Average flue gas dew points for some typical fuels

Flue Gases - Dew Point Temperature

Flue gas, dew point temperature and condensation of water vapor

Fossil Fuels - Energy Content

Convert between fossil fuels units

Fuel Gases and Heating Values

Combustion and heating values of fuel gases - acetylene, blast furnace gas, ethane, biogas and more - Gross and Net values

Fuel Gases and Wobbe Index

Wobbe index for common fuel gases - propane, butane, methane and more

Fuel Gases and their Combustion Values

Combustion values for some fuel gases like natural gas, propane and butane - Btu per cubic feet

Fuel Oil Burners

Types of fuel oil burners - pot types, gun types and rotary types

Fuel Oil Pumps - Suction Capacities

Single stage and double stage fuel oil pumps and their suction capacities

Fuel Oil Viscosities

Fuels oils - and their viscosities versus temperature

Fuel Oil and Combustion Values

Combustion values in Btu/gal for fuel oils No.1 to No.6

Fuel Oils - Storage Tanks

Dimensions of fuel oils storage tanks

Fuels - Combustion Air and Flue Gases

Combustion air and flue gas for common fuels - coke, oil, wood, natural gas and more

Fuels - Densities and Specific Volumes

Densities and specific volumes of some common fuels - anthracite, butane, coke, oil, wood and more

Fuels - Exhaust Temperatures

Exhaust and outlet temperatures for some common fuels - natural gas, liquefied petroleum, diesel and more

Fuels - Higher Calorific Values

Higher calorific values for some common fuels - coke, oil, wood, hydrogen and others

Fuels Properties Database

Online petroleum-based fuels properties database

Fuels and Boiling Points

Some common fuels and their boiling points

Fuels and Chemicals - Auto Ignition Temperatures

The ignition point for some common fuels and chemicals butane, coke, hydrogen, petroleum and more

Gaseous Fuels and their Chemical Composition

Chemical composition of some common gaseous fuels - like coal gas, natural gas, propane and more

Gases - Explosion and Flammability Concentration Limits

Flame and explosion limits for gases - propane, methane, butane, acetylene and more

Gross Combustion Value Materials

Gross combustion values for some commonly used materials - carbon, methane, ethylene and more - values in Btu/lb

Gross and Net Heating Values for some common Gases

Gross heating and net heating value for some common gases as hydrogen, methane and more

Head Loss in Oil Pipes

Head or pressure loss due to friction in oil pipes - various viscosity and laminar flow.

Heat Loss from Oil Pipes

Heat loss in W/mK and Btu/hr ft oF from oil tubes ranging temperatures 10 - 38oC (50 - 100oF)

Heating Fuels - Comparing Costs

Cost comparison formulas for heating fuels like Natural Gas, Propane LP Gas, Fuel Oil and Electricity

Heating Value

The gross (high) and net (low) heating values

Hot Water Boiler - Water Circulation Rates

Boiler power and water flow through boilers - Imperial and SI-units

Intermittent Combustion and Boiler Efficiency

The efficiency is reduced by intermittent boiler operation

Liquefied Natural Gas - LNG

LNG or Liquefied Natural Gas

Liquefied Petroleum Gas - LPG

LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Methane - Convert between Liquid and Gaseous Units

Convert between liquid and gaseous unit for LNG or Methane

Natural Gas Consumption

Natural gas consumption in common equipment - boiling pans, ovens, cookers, kettles and more

Oil Pipes - Recommended Flow Velocities

Flow velocities in oil pipes should be kept within certain limits

Online Fuel Equivalents Calculator

Online calculator to compute the fuels equivalents - oil and gas

Optimal Combustion Processes - Fuels and Excess Air

Stable and efficient combustion conditions require correct mixtures of fuels and oxygen

Paraffins and Alkanes - Combustion Properties

Heating values, air/fuel ratios, flame speed, flame temperatures, ignition temperatures, flash points and flammability limits


Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Propane Gas - C3H8

Propane - Vapor Pressure

Vapor pressure of propane

Propane Butane Mixures - Evaporation Pressures

Evaporation pressures of propane butane mixtures

Roof Termination for Chimneys

Roof terminations for chimneys and single wall vents

Sizing the Boiler Room

Minimum boiler room area

Standard Grade Coal - Heating Values

Standard grades coal and heating values

Standard Reference Fuels and their Equivalents

Convert between fuel equivalents

Stoichiometric Combustion

Stoichiometric combustion and excess of air

Stoker Classification

Coal stokers can be classified on basis of coal burning capacities

Waste Fuel

Heating values of fuel from waste

Wood - Combustion Heat Values

Firewood and combustion heat values - Pine, Elm, Hickory and other species

Wood Species - Weight at various Moisture Content

Weight of green and air-dry fire wood

Wood and Bio Mass Heat

Combustion values of wet and dry wood - Btu/pounds, kJ/kg and kcal/kg

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