Air Duct Components and Minor Loss Coefficients

Minor loss - pressure or head loss - coefficients for air duct distribution systems components

Minor Loss - Head or Pressure Loss in Air Duct Components - can be expressed with

hminor_loss = ξ v2/ (2 g)         (1)

where

hminor_loss = minor head loss (m, ft)

ξ = minor loss coefficient

v = flow velocity (m/s, ft/s)

g = acceleration of gravity (m/s2, ft/s2)

Minor loss can also be expressed as pressure loss instead of head loss.

Minor loss coefficients for different components in air duct distribution systems:

Component or FittingMinor Loss Coefficient
- ξ -
90o bend, sharp 1.3
90o bend, with vanes 0.7
90o bend, rounded
radius/diameter duct <1
0.5
90o bend, rounded
radius/diameter duct >1
0.25
45o bend, sharp 0.5
45o bend, rounded
radius/diameter duct <1
0.2
45o bend, rounded
radius/diameter duct >1
0.05
T, flow to branch
(applied to velocity in branch)
0.3
Flow from duct to room 1.0
Flow from room to duct 0.35
Reduction, tapered 0
Enlargement, abrupt
(due to speed before reduction)
(v1= velocity before enlargement and v2 = velocity after enlargement)
(1 - v2 / v1)2
Enlargement, tapered angle < 8o
(due to speed before reduction)
(v1= velocity before enlargement and v2 = velocity after enlargement)
0.15 (1 - v2 / v1)2
Enlargement, tapered angle > 8o
(due to speed before reduction)
(v1= velocity before enlargement and v2 = velocity after enlargement)
(1 - v2 / v1)2
Grilles, 0.7 ratio free area to total surface 3
Grilles, 0.6 ratio free area to total surface 4
Grilles, 0.5 ratio free area to total surface 6
Grilles, 0.4 ratio free area to total surface 10
Grilles, 0.3 ratio free area to total surface 20
Grilles, 0.2 ratio free area to total surface 50

Example - Minor Loss in a Bend

The minor loss in a 90o sharp bend with minor loss coefficient 1.3 and air velocity 10 m/s can be calculated as

hminor_loss = (1.3) (10 m/s)2/ (2 (9.81 m/s2))

                 = 6.6 m

Related Topics

  • Fluid Mechanics - The study of fluids - liquids and gases. Involves velocity, pressure, density and temperature as functions of space and time
  • Ventilation - Systems for ventilation and air handling - air change rates, ducts and pressure drops, charts and diagrams and more

Related Documents

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