# Miscellaneous

## Miscellaneous engineering related topics like Beaufort Wind Scale, CE-marking, drawing standards and more

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### Precious Metals - Unit of Fineness

Unit of fineness - Carat

### Abbreviations according International Electrotechnical Commission

Conforming abbreviations according IEC

### Air Temperature and Altitude

Altitude - air temperature and air density

### Altitude above Sea Level and Air Pressure

Elevation above sea level - in feet and meter - with barometric and atmospheric pressure - *inches mercury, psia, kg/cm ^{2} and kPa*

### Antifreeze - Required Amount

Cooling system capacity, temperature and required antifreeze

### Apothecaries' Weight System

Apothecaries' fluid and weight system - ounce, drachms, grains, scruples ..

### Area Survey App

Online calculator app to make an exact plot of a surveyed area - like a room, a property or any 2D shape

### Assembly of Shrink-Fits

Heating temperatures of shrink-fits

### Barometer - Elevation Compensation

Compensating barometers for their elevation

### Barometric Pressure - Pressure in Pounds per Square Inch and Square Foot

Relation between barometric pressure (inches Hg) and pressure in psi and psf

### Beaufort Wind Scale

The Beaufort description and observation of wind and wind velocity

### Blueprint Letters

Letters used to differentiate blueprint drawings

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### Board Feet Chart

Board Foot - the volume measurement of lumber

### Bolts - Lubrication Effects on Torque and Tension

Lubrication effects on torque and bolt tension

### Bricks - Estimating Quantity and Mortar Consumption

Required quantity of bricks and mortar

### Builder's to Surveyor's Measurements

Convert builder's measurements to surveyor's measurements

### Building Foundations - Load

Loads on building foundations

### Building Tolerances

Tolerances for floors, walls, columns and more

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### CE Marking

The European Machine Directive

### CSI MasterFormat Specifications

Construction Specifications Institute's 2004 Master-Format Edition

### Chemicals - Chemical Formulas

Chemical formulas and trade names

### Clothes - Comparing US, UK and European Sizing

Comparing European, UK, US sizing in clothing, shoes, shirts and sweaters

### Concrete - Calculate Cubic Volume

Calculating required concrete volume

### Concrete - Volume Estimate

Estimate required concrete volume per sq. ft. of slab

### Concrete - Water to Cement Ratios

Concrete and water to cement ratios

### Concrete Columns

Estimate concrete volume required for concrete columns

### Concrete Slabs - Load Capacities

Load capacity of simply supported concrete slabs

### Concrete Slabs and Thickness

Recommended thickness of concrete slabs

### Concrete Volume for Footing

Estimate concrete volume required for footing

### Concrete Walls

Estimate volume of concrete walls

###
Constants of *e*

*e* constants

###
Constants of *π (pi)*

π constants

### Conveyors - Capacities

Calculate conveyor capacity

### Conveyors - Load & Power Consumption

Load and conveyors required power consumption

### Conveyors - Maximum Slopes

Maximum conveyor slopes for various materials

### Cooking Volume Converter

Convert between liquid volumes used for cooking

### Cooking Volume Converter - US and Metric Units

Convert common cooking liquid and dry measuring volumes between US and metric units

### DFA - Design for Assembly index

Design for Assembly Index

### Decibel

Decibel is a logarithmic unit used to describe the ratio of a signal level - like power, sound pressure, voltage, intensity etc.

### Drawings - Sheet Layouts

Standard layouts of drawing sheets

### Drawings - Standard Metric Sizes

Standard metric sizes of drawing sheets

### Drill Bit Speed - Hardwood and Softwood

Hardwood and softwood drill speed chart

### Driving Distances between European Cities

Driving distances between some major European cities

### Dumping or Tipping Angles

Tipping angles for some common materials like ashes, sand, earth, shingles ...

### Dust Explosions - Critical Temperatures and Concentrations

Critical temperatures and concentration parameters for substances like coal, zinc, uranium and more

### Effects of Low-Frequency Vibrations on Buildings

Effects of low-frequency vibrations on building constructions

### Electrical Equipment and Power Consumption

Typical power consumption and running time for some common electrical equipment

### Electrode Potential and Galvanic Corrosion

Introduction to electro chemical series and corrosion of metals

### Elevation - Speed of Sound

Speed of sound, temperature and pressure at different altitudes

### Engine & Gear Oil - Temperatures and Viscosity Limits

Oil viscosity vs. temperature

### Excavation Slope

Calculating excavation slope

### Factors of Safety

Factors of Safety - FOS - are important for engineering design

### Fasteners - Types Chart

Wood screws, machine screws, sheet metal screws, self drilling SMS and more

### Feet and Inches - to Inches Converter

Convert from feet and inches to inches

### Firestop Ratings

F-rating, T-rating and L-rating of firestopping systems

### Food Products - Osmotic Pressure

Osmotic pressure of some food products

### Friction and Coefficients of Friction

Friction theory and coefficients of friction for common materials and materials combinations

### Frozen Food - Storage Life

Practical storage life for some common frozen food products

### Fruits and Vegetables - Optimal Storage Conditions

Optimal temperature and humidity conditions for some common fruits and vegetables

### Fuel Consumption Converter

Convert between common fuel consumption units - *US MPG, Imperial MPG, l/nm, l/100 km and km/litre*

### Gauge and Weight Chart

Gauge and weight chart for sheet steel, galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum and strip & tubing

### Glue-Laminated Timber - Dimensions

Typical sizes of glue-laminated timber

### Golden Section

Or Golden Mean

### Gravel - Cover Area

Aggregate cover area

### Grease - Temperature Limit

Grease is a combination of oil and a thickener

### HTML Color Codes

Safe html color codes

### Hardwood Lumber - Dimensions

Size of hardwood lumber

### Hazardous Areas Classification - European Standard

European hazardous area classification in zones, protection types, temperature codes and codes

### Hazardous Areas Classification - North America

North American hazardous locations classification in classes, divisions and groups

### Inches and Decimal Equivalents

Decimal equivalents of eights, sixteenths, thirty-seconds and sixty-fourths of an inch

### International Standard Atmosphere

International standard atmosphere in elevation *-2000 to 30000 meters* - pressure, temperature, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and velocity of sound

### Latitude and Acceleration of Gravity

Acceleration of gravity varies with latitude

### Latitude and Longitude Converter

Convert between Degrees, Minutes and Seconds and Decimal Units (or vice versa)

### Lead Acid Batteries

Specific gravity and charge of lead acid batteries - temperature and efficiency

### Length Units Converter

Convert between units like *meters, feet, inches, yards, kilometers and miles*

### Liter per km - liter/km

Distance traveled and fuel consumption - liter per km (liter/km)

### Machine Processing and Tolerance Grades

Machine processing and tolerance

### Manila Rope - Strength

Manila 3-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

### Mapping Scales - Length and Area

Convert between mapping scales and length and area

### Masonry Blocks - Dimensions

Concrete Masonry Unit Blocks (CMU) - dimensions

### Materials - Light Reflecting Factors

Light reflecting factor materials

### Mechanical Processing and Surface Roughness

Mechanical production methods and their surface roughness

### Metric Bolts - Head and Wrench Sizes

ANSI/SO, DIN and JIS bolts

### Mild Steel - Round Bar

Round bar weights

### Mild Steel - Square Bars

Typical weight of mild steel square bars

### Miles per Gallon - mpg

Miles per gallon - mpg - fuel chart

### Minutes to Decimal Hours

Converting minutes to descimal hours

### Mortar Types

ASTM Mortar Types

### Nails and Spikes

Allowable withdrawal load

### Numerical Constants

Some numerical constants

### Nylon Rope - Strength

Nylon 3-strand and 8-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

### Oil - Lubrication and Temperature Limit

Temperature limits for lubricating oils

### Online Mortgage Payment Calculator

Calculate mortgage payment with Annual Interest Rate, Number of Years and Amount Borrowed

### Paper Drafting Sizes - Comparing ISO Drawing Sheets with U.S. Drawing Sheets

ISO drawing sheets compared with U.S. and Canadian drawing sheets

### Paper Drafting Sizes - ISO 216 series A, B and C

The ISO 216 A, B and C drawing series - dimensions of regular, oversized and envelope sheets

### Paper Sizes - Imperial

Sizes used for printing and drawing papers

### Paper Sizes - commonly used in U.S. Offices

Office paper sizes as Letter, Legal, Tabloid and more

### Pasteurization Temperatures

Pasteurization methods and temperatures

### Poisson's ratio

When a material is stretched in one direction it tends to get thinner in the other two directions

### Polyester Polyolefin Rope - Strength

Polyester Polyolefin dual fiber 3-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

### Polyester Rope - Strength

Polyester 3-strand and 8-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

### Polypropylene Fiber Rope - Strength

Polypropylene fiber 3-strand and 8 strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

### Rebar - Metric Reinforcing Bar

Reinforcing bar - European metric dimensions

### Rebar - U.S. Imperial Reinforcing Bar

U.S. imperial dimensions of rebar

### Rebar - Weights

Weights of rebar rods - size ranging 1/4

### Rectangular Tanks - Volume

Tank volume per foot depth

### Roman Numerals

Roman numerals are a combinations of seven letters

### Roof Framing

Run, Roof Slope, Gable Height and Gable Area

### Roofing Materials - Weights

Weight calculator for roofing materials

### Safety Signals - recommended Colors

American National Standards Institutes schedule for safety colors marking physical hazards

### Sandpaper - Grit Sizes

Grit sizes ranging 12 - 600

### Scale of Objects

The relative scale of objects

### Scientific and Engineering Terms - ANSI Abbreviations

Abbreviations for Use on Drawings and in Text - ANSI Y1.1

### Shackles - Safe Loads

Safe loads of shackles

### Shipping Units of Measure

Vessel and cargo capacities

### Sieve Size and Mesh Designation

US commercial sieve sizes and mesh designations

### Sisal Rope - Strength

Sisal rope 3-strand, minimum breaking strength and safe load

### Slope - Degree, Gradient and Grade Converter

Converting slopes between degrees, gradients and grades

### Softwood Lumber - Dimensions

Commercial softwood lumber dimension chart - nominal and actual sizes

### Softwood Lumber - Grading

Rough lumber, surfaced lumber (dressed), worked lumber, shop and factory lumber and yard lumber

### Soil and Rock - Bulking Factors

Soil and rock expansion - or swell - after mining

### Speed and Velocity Converter

Convert speed and velocity units - *m/s, km/h, knots, mph and ft/s*

### Speed vs. Time - Graph Calculator

Velocity plotted against time diagram

### Sprinkler Protection Area

Maximum fire sprinkler protection area

### Stair Calculator

Calculate unit rise and run in stairs

### Standard Gauges

Standard gauges for wire and sheet - *American, Birmingham, Washburn, Music, Stubs* ..

### Standard US Architectural Drawing Sizes

Commonly used US architectural drawing sizes and formats

### Standard US Engineering Drawing Sizes

US engineering drawing sizes based on ANSI/ASME Y14.1

### Steel Flats - Weight

Typically weight of mild steel flats

### Steel Plates - Size & Weight

Size & weight of steel plates - thickness ranging 3/16 - 10 inches - metric units

### Steel Wool Grades

Steel wool grades and fiber thickness

### Stockpile Volumes

Volume of natural stockpiles - cubic feet, yard, meter and decimeter

### Stone - Weight and Strength

Weight and strength of sandstone, granite, limestone, marble and slate

### Stress in Bolts

Calculating stressed area in UN and UNR bolts

### Studs Quantity

Calculate number of studs

### Surface Finishing

Lumber and surface finishing abbreviations

### Surface Roughness and Abrasive Grain Size

U.S. mesh size and surface roughness

### Tank Volume

Volume of cylindrical (round) tanks - US. gallons per foot of dept or length

### Tempering Colors of Steel

The tempering process of hardening steel

### The Greek Alphabet

The Greek alphabet is essential when expressing formulas and technical language

### Threads - Metric ISO 724

M Thread (metric ISO 724 thread) European Standard

### Trees - Urban Heights

Height of trees commonly used in towns and urban areas

### Trees - Water Demand

Trees and their relative water demand

### Trench Excavation

Estimate trench excavation - online calculator

### Troy Weight

Weighing gold and silver

### Types of Contracts

Commonly used engineering and construction contracts

### US Bolts - Head and Wrench Sizes

Hex Bolt, Lag Bolt, Square Bolt and Heavy Hex Bolt

### US Machine Screws

Machine screw diameters

### US and Metric Fasteners - Thread Sizes

Printable fastener tools

### UTM to Latitude and Longitude Converter

Online UTM to Latitude Longitude converter

### Uniformat

The ASTM E1557 UNIFORMAT II Standard

### Value Engineering

Enhancing function and improving value

### Vehicle Miles Traveled

Speed (miles per hour), time (hours) and distance traveled (miles)

### Vehicle km Traveled

Speed (km per hour), time (hours) and distance traveled (km)

### Vehicles Traffic - Flow and Density

Vehicles flow and densities in highway design

### Wire Rope - Strength

6 strand x 19 wire (6x19) - minimum breaking strength, safe loads and weight

### Wood - Moisture and Compressive Strength

Red Spruce, Longleaf Pine and Douglas Fir - moisture content and their compressive strength

### Wood Screws

Allowable withdrawal load or force

### Wood Screws

Shank diameters - pilot holes

### Wood Screws - Holes

Hard wood and soft wood pilot holes, shank clearance holes and countersink diameters

### Wrench Conversion Chart

Comparing US and metric wrenches

### pH Definition

Introduction to pH