# Miscellaneous

## Engineering related topics like Beaufort Wind Scale, CE-marking, drawing standards and more

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### Precious Metals - Unit of Fineness

Unit of gold fineness - Karat

### Abbreviations according International Electrotechnical Commission

Conforming abbreviations according IEC

### Air Temperature and Altitude

Altitude - air temperature and air density

### Altitude above Sea Level and Air Pressure

Elevation above sea level - in feet and meter - with barometric and atmospheric pressure - *inches mercury, psia, kg/cm ^{2} and kPa*

### Antifreeze and Required Amount

Protected cooling system temperature and required amount of antifreeze

### Apothecaries' Weight System

Apothecaries' fluid and weight system - ounce, drachms, grains, scruples ..

### Area Survey App

Online calculator app to make an exact plot of a surveyed area - like a room, a property or any 2D shape

### Assembly of Shrink-Fits

Heating temperatures of shrink-fits

### Barometer - Compensation for Altitude

Compensating manometer for elevation

### Barometric Pressure - Pressure in Pounds per Square Inch and Square Foot

Relation between barometric pressure (inches Hg) and pressure in psi and psf

### Beaufort Wind Scale

The Beaufort description and observation of wind and wind velocity

### Blueprint Letters

Letters used to differentiate blueprint drawings

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### Board Feet Chart

Board Foot - volume measurement of lumber

### Bolt - Stress Area

Stress area in UN and UNR bolts

### Bolts - Lubrication Effects on Torque and Tension

Lubrication effects on torque and bolt tension

### Bricks - Quantity and Mortar Consumption

Estimating required quantity of bricks and mortar

### Builder's to Surveyor's Measurements

Convert builder's measurements to surveyor's measurements

### Building Foundations - Loads

Typical loads on building foundations

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### Building Tolerances

Tolerances for floors, walls, columns and more

### CE Marking

The European Machine Directive

### Center of Gravity

Bodies and their center of gravity

### Chemicals - Formulas and Trading Names

Formulas and trading names for some common chemicals

### Clothes - Comparing US, UK and European Sizing

Comparing European, UK, US sizing in clothing, shoes, shirts and sweaters

### Color Mixing Theory

Subtractive and additive color mixing theories

### Concrete - Calculate Cubic Volume

Calculating required concrete volume

### Concrete - Volume Estimate

Estimate required concrete volume per sq. ft. of slab

### Concrete - Water to Cement Ratios

Concrete and water to cement ratios

### Concrete Columns

Estimate concrete volume required for concrete columns

### Concrete Footing Volume

Estimate required concrete footing volume

### Concrete Slab Load Capacity

Load capacity of simply supported concrete slabs

### Concrete Slab Thickness

Recommended thickness of concrete slabs

### Concrete Walls

Estimate volume in concrete walls

###
Constants of *e*

*e* constants

###
Constants of *π (pi)*

π constants

### Conveyor Capacity

Calculate the capacity of conveyors

### Conveyors - Load & Power Consumption

Load and conveyors required power consumption

### Conveyors - Maximum Slopes

Maximum conveyor slopes for various materials

### Cooking Volume Converter

Convert liquid cooking volumes

### Cooking Volume Converter - US and Metric Units

Convert common cooking liquid and dry measuring volumes between US and metric units

### CSI MasterFormat Specifications

Construction Specifications Institute's 2004 Master-Format Edition

### Decibel

Decibel is a logarithmic unit used to describe the ratio of a signal level - like power, sound pressure, voltage, intensity etc. to a reference level

### DFA - Design for Assembly index

Design for Assembly Index

### Dimensionless numbers

Definitions and symbols for physical and chemical dimensionless quantities, with areas of application of the different numbers. Reynolds, Euler, Nusselt, Prandtl..... and many more

### Distance Traveled - Speed versus Time

Speed (miles per hour) and time (hours) and distance traveled (miles) chart

### Distances between cities

Flight distances between selected cities in different countries and continents, to be used to calculate CO2 emissions from long distance flights

### Drawings - Sheet Layouts

Standard layouts of drawing sheets

### Drawings - Standard Metric Sizes

Standard metric drawing sheet sizes

### Drill Bit Speed - Hardwood and Softwood

Hardwood and softwood drill speed chart

### Driving Distance between European Cities

Driving distance between some major European cities

### Dumping or Tipping Angles

Tipping angles for some common materials like ashes, sand, earth, shingles ...

### Dust Explosions - Critical Temperatures and Concentrations

Critical temperatures and concentration parameters for substances like coal, zinc, uranium and more

### Effects of Low-Frequency Vibrations on Buildings

Effects of low-frequency vibrations on building constructions

### Electrical Equipment and Power Consumption

Typical power consumption and running time for some common electrical equipment

### Electrode Potential and Galvanic Corrosion

Introduction to electro chemical series and corrosion of metals

### Elevation and Speed of Sound

Speed of sound, temperature and pressure at different altitudes

### Engine & Gear Oil - Temperatures and Viscosity Limits

Oil viscosity vs. temperature

### Excavation Slope

Calculating excavation slope

### Factors of Safety

Factors of Safety - FOS - are important for engineering design

### Fasteners - Types Chart

Wood screws, machine screws, sheet metal screws, self drilling SMS and more

### Feet to Inches Converting Chart

Convert from feet and inches to inches

### Fire-Stop Ratings

F-rated, T-rated and L-rated fire-stop systems

### Food Products and Osmotic Pressure

Osmotic pressure of food products

### Friction and Friction Coefficients

Friction theory and coefficients of friction for ice, aluminum, steel, graphite and other common materials and materials combinations

### Frozen Food - Storage Life

Practical storage life for some common frozen food products

### Fruits and Vegetables - Optimal Storage Conditions

Optimal temperature and humidity conditions for some common fruits and vegetables

### Fuel Consumption Converter

Convert between common fuel consumption units - *US MPG, Imperial MPG, l/nm, l/100 km and km/litre*

### Fuel Consumption in liter per km

Distance traveled and fuel consumption in liter/km chart

### Gauge and Weight Chart

Gauge and weight chart for sheet steel, galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum and strip & tubing

### Glue-Laminated Timber - Dimensions

Typical sizes of glue-laminated timber

### Golden Section

Or Golden Mean

### Gravel - Cover Area

Gravel aggregate covering area

### Grease Temperature Limits

Grease is a combination of oil and thickener

### Hardwood Lumber - Dimensions

Size of hardwood lumber

### Hazardous Areas Classification - European Standard

European hazardous area classification in zones, protection types, temperature codes and codes

### Hazardous Areas Classification - North America

North American hazardous locations classification in classes, divisions and groups

### HTML Color Codes

Safe html color codes

### Inches - Decimal Equivalents

Decimal equivalents of eights, sixteenths, thirty-seconds and sixty-fourths of an inch

### International Standard Atmosphere

International standard atmosphere in elevation *-2000 to 30000 meters* - pressure, temperature, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and velocity of sound

### Latitude and Acceleration of Gravity

Acceleration of gravity varies with latitude

### Latitude and Longitude Converter

Convert between Degrees, Minutes and Seconds and Decimal Units (or vice versa)

### Lead Acid Batteries

Specific gravity and charge of lead acid batteries - temperature and efficiency

### Length Units Converter

Convert between units like *meters, feet, inches, yards, kilometers and miles*

### Machine Processing and Tolerance Grades

Machine processing and tolerances

### Manila Rope - Strength

Manila 3-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

### Mapping Scales - Length and Area

Convert between mapping scales and length and area

### Masonry Blocks - Dimensions

Concrete Masonry Unit Blocks (CMU) - dimensions

### Materials - Light Reflecting Factors

Light reflecting factor materials

### Mechanical Processing and Surface Roughness

Mechanical production methods and surface roughness

### Metric Bolts - Head and Wrench Sizes

ANSI/SO, DIN and JIS bolts

### Mild Steel - Round Bar

Round bar weights

### Mild Steel - Square Bars

Typical weight of mild steel square bars

### Miles per Gallon - mpg

Estimating mpg - distance traveled versus fuel consumption chart

### Minutes to Decimal Hours

Converting minutes to descimal hours

### Mortar Types

ASTM Mortar Types

### Nails and Spikes

Allowable withdrawal load

### Numerical Constants

Some numerical constants

### Nylon Rope - Strength

Nylon 3-strand and 8-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

### Oil - Lubrication and Temperature Limits

Temperature limits for lubricating oils

### Online Mortgage Payment Calculator

Calculate mortgage payment with Annual Interest Rate, Number of Years and Amount Borrowed

### Paper Drafting Sizes - Comparing ISO and U.S. Drawing Sheets

ISO compared with U.S. and Canadian drawing sheets

### Paper Drafting Sizes - ISO 216 series A, B and C

The ISO 216 A, B and C drawing series - dimensions of regular, oversized and envelope sheets

### Paper Sizes - commonly used in U.S. Offices

Office paper sizes as Letter, Legal, Tabloid and more

### Paper Sizes - Imperial

Sizes used for printing and drawing papers

### Pasteurization Temperatures

Pasteurization methods and temperatures

### pH Definition - basic (alkaline) and acidic

Introduction to pH - acidic and basic (alkaline)

### Poisson's ratio

When a material is stretched in one direction it tends to get thinner in the other two directions

### Polyester Polyolefin Rope - Strength

Polyester Polyolefin dual fiber 3-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

### Polyester Rope - Strength

Polyester 3-strand and 8-strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

### Polypropylene Fiber Rope - Strength

Polypropylene fiber 3-strand and 8 strand rope - minimum breaking strength and safe load

### Rebar - Metric Reinforcing Bar

Reinforcing bar - European metric dimensions

### Rebar - U.S. Imperial Reinforcing Bar

U.S. imperial dimensions of rebar

### Rebar - Weights

Weights of rebar rods - size ranging 1/4

### Rectangular Tanks - Volume

Tank volume per foot depth

### Roman Numerals

Roman numerals are a combinations of seven letters

### Roof Framing

Run, Roof Slope, Gable Height and Gable Area

### Roofing Materials - Weights

Weight calculator for roofing materials

### Safety Signals - recommended Colors

American National Standards Institutes schedule for safety colors marking physical hazards

### Sandpaper - Grit Sizes

Grit sizes ranging 12 - 600

### Scale of Objects

The relative scale of objects

### Scientific and Engineering Terms - ANSI Abbreviations

Abbreviations for Use on Drawings and in Text - ANSI Y1.1

### Shackles - Safe Loads

Safe loads of shackles

### Shipping Measuring Units

Vessel and cargo capacities

### Sieve Size and Mesh Designation

US commercial sieve sizes and mesh designations

### Sisal Rope - Strength

Sisal rope 3-strand, minimum breaking strength and safe load

### Slope - Degree, Gradient and Grade Converter

Converting slopes between degrees, gradients and grades

### Softwood Lumber - Dimensions

Commercial softwood lumber dimension chart - nominal and actual sizes

### Softwood Lumber - Grading

Rough lumber, surfaced lumber (dressed), worked lumber, shop and factory lumber and yard lumber

### Soil and Rock - Bulk Factors

Soil and rock expansion - or swell - after mining

### Speed and Velocity Converter

Convert speed and velocity units - *m/s, km/h, knots, mph and ft/s*

### Speed vs. Time and Distance Traveled Graph Calculator

Velocity plotted against time diagram

### Sprinkler Protection Area

Maximum fire sprinkler protection area

### Stair Calculator

Calculate unit rise and run in stairs

### Standard Gauges

Standard gauges for wire and sheet - *American, Birmingham, Washburn, Music, Stubs* ..

### Standard test methods (ASTM and others) and specifications for petroleum products

An overview of common test methods and specifications of petroleum fuels. What, why and how do the different test?

### Standard test methods (ASTM and others) for crude oil properties

An overview of common test methods and typical ranges of variation of petroleum quality parameters. What, why and how do the different test?

### Standard US Architectural Drawing Sizes

Commonly used US architectural drawing sizes and formats

### Standard US Engineering Drawing Sizes

US engineering drawing sizes based on ANSI/ASME Y14.1

### Steel Flats - Weight

Typically weight of mild steel flats

### Steel Plates - Size & Weight

Size & weight of steel plates - thickness ranging 3/16 - 10 inches - metric units

### Steel Tempering Colors

The tempering process of hardening steel

### Steel Wool Grades

Steel wool grades and fiber thickness

### Stockpile Volumes

Volume of natural stockpiles - cubic feet, yard, meter and decimeter

### Stone - Weight and Strength

Weight and strength of sandstone, granite, limestone, marble and slate

### Surface Finishing

Lumber and surface finishing abbreviations

### Surface Roughness and Abrasive Grain Size

U.S. mesh size and surface roughness

### Symbols Used to Denote a Chemical Reaction, Process or Condition

Explanation of symbols used as subscripts or superscripts to tell more about the type of chemical reaction, process or condition

### Tank Volume

Volume of cylindrical (round) tanks - US. gallons per foot of dept or length

### The Greek Alphabet

The Greek alphabet is essential when expressing formulas and technical language

### Threads - Metric ISO 724

M Thread (metric ISO 724 thread) European Standard

### Trees - Urban Heights

Height of trees commonly used in towns and urban areas

### Trees - Water Demand

Trees and their relative water demand

### Trench Excavation

Estimate trench excavation - online calculator

### Troy Weight

Weight of gold and silver

### Types of Contracts

Commonly used engineering and construction contracts

### Uniformat

The ASTM E1557 UNIFORMAT II Standard

### US and Metric Fasteners - Thread Sizes

Printable fastener tools

### US Bolts - Head and Wrench Sizes

Hex Bolt, Lag Bolt, Square Bolt and Heavy Hex Bolt

### US Machine Screws

Machine screw diameters

### UTM to Latitude and Longitude Converter

Online UTM to Latitude Longitude converter

### Value Engineering

Enhancing function and improving value

### Vehicle - Speed, Time and Distance Traveled

Speed (km per hour), time (hours) and distance traveled (km)

### Vehicles - Traffic Flow and Density

Vehicles flow and density in highway design

### Walls - No. of Studs

Calculate the number of studs in a wall

### Wire Rope - Strength

6 strand x 19 wire (6x19) - minimum breaking strength, safe loads and weight

### Wood - Moisture and Compressive Strength

Red Spruce, Longleaf Pine and Douglas Fir - moisture content and their compressive strength

### Wood Screws - Holes

Hard wood and soft wood pilot holes, shank clearance holes and countersink diameters

### Wood Screws - Shank Diameters

Shank diameters and pilot holes

### Wood Screws Withdrawal Force

Allowable withdrawal load force

### Wrench Conversion Chart

SAE to Metric converter - inches vs. mm