Gases and Compressed Air

Air, LNG, LPG and other common gas properties, pipeline capacities, sizing of relief valves

Air - Absolute and Kinematic Viscosity

Absolute (dynamic) and kinematic viscosity of air at temperatures ranging -40 - 1000oC (-40 - 1500oF) at standard atmospheric pressure - Imperial Units

Air - Altitude, Density and Specific Volume

The density and the specific volume of air varies with elevation above sea level

Air - Temperature and Volume

Air temperature and volume correction compared to Normal Air Conditions

Air Compressors - Maximum Air Flow at Inlet Pipes

Inlet pipe size and maximum air flow

Air Compressors - Yearly Power Costs

Yearly power costs for operating an air compressor

Air Density and Specific Weight

Density and specific weight of air at temperatures ranging -40 - 1000oC (-40 - 1500oF) at standard atmospheric pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Air Discharge through Hoses

Discharging air volume through hoses at pressures ranging 30 - 90 psi

Air Properties

Density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, expansion coefficient, kinematic viscosity and Prandtl's number - for air temperatures ranging from -150 oC to 400 oC

Air Properties - Imperial Units

Thermodynamic properties of air at low pressures - imperial units

Air Tools and Air Consumption

Average air volume requirement

Boyle's Law (Mariotte's Law)

Perfect gas and Boyle's law

Charles' Law

A perfect gas - volume and temperature

Classification of Gases

Oxidizers, Inert and Flammable gases

Compressed Air - Air Flow and Recommended Pipe Size

Pipe line sizing compressed air

Compressed Air - Glossary of Terms

A glossary of terms commonly used for compressed air

Compressed Air - Hose Friction

Pressure loss in air hoses at various pressures

Compressed Air - Laboratories

Required supply of compressed air to laboratories

Compressed Air - Pressure Drop Diagrams in Metric Units

Pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines

Compressed Air Pipe Lines - Capacities

Capacities of compressed air pipelines - applied pressure ranging 5 - 250 psi (0.5 - 17 bar)

Compressed Air Pipe Lines - Pressure Loss

Pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines

Compressed Air Pipe Lines - Recommended Sizes

Air pipe lines at pressure 100 psi

Compressed Air Pipes - Fittings and Pressure Drops

Fittings in compressed air pipe lines - equivalent length pressure drop

Compressed Air Piping and Pressure Drop Diagrams - Imperial Units

Pressure drop in compressed air pipelines - applied pressure 50, 100 and 150 psi

Compressed Air Pressure Drop Diagram

Pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines - nomograph diagram

Compressed Air Pressure Drop in Pipe Lines - Online Pressure Drop Calculator

Calculate pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines - metric and imperial units

Compressed Air Quality

Compressed air is used for power tools, instrumentation, processing and as breathing air

Compressed Air Receivers

Calculating receivers in compressed air systems

Compressed Gas and Air - Storage Volumes

Calculate the storage volume of compressed air or gas

Control Valve Sizing Calculator - Gases

An online control valve - Cv - calculator for gases

Dalton's Law

Gibbs'-Dalton's law of partial pressure

Density of Dry Air, Water Vapor and Moist Humid Air

Calculate the density of dry air, water vapor or the mixture of air and water vapor - moist or humid air

Gas Carrying Capacities House Piping

Carrying capacities in gas pipes - imperial and metric units

Gas Data

Online database with gas properties

Gas Marks - Cookers and Temperature

Gas marks on gas ovens and the heat or temperature developed

Gas Mixtures and Properties

Special care must be taken for gas mixtures when using the ideal gas law, calculating the mass, the individual gas constant or the density

Gas Pipes - Approved Materials

Materials approved for gas pipes

Gas Vent Termination - Clearance Tolerances

Clearance tolerance per roof slope for gas vent terminations - vent caps

Gases - Critical Temperatures and Pressures

Critical temperatures and pressures for some common gases - air, alcohol, ether, oxygen and more

Gases - Densities

Densities and molecular weights of some common gases - acetylene, air, methane, nitrogen, oxygen and many others ..

Gases - Explosion and Flammability Concentration Limits

Flame and explosion limits for gases - propane, methane, butane, acetylene and more

Gases - Specific Gravities

Specific gravity of air, ammonia, butadiene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and some other common gases

Horsepower required to Compress Air

Online air compressor horsepower calculator

Ideal Gas Law

In perfect or ideal gas the change in density is directly related to the change of temperature and pressure as expressed by the Ideal Gas Law

Ideal Gas Properties Carbon Dioxide

Enthalpy, Entropy and Internal Energy of Carbon Dioxide

Ideal Gas Properties Oxygen

Enthalpy, Internal Energy and Entropy of Oxygen

Ideal Gas Properties of Nitrogen

Enthalpy, internal energy and entropy of Nitrogen

LP Gas Properties

Liquefied Petroleum - LP - gas properties

LPG Tanks - Relief Valves

Required capacities of relief valves on LPG vaporizers and tanks

Liquefied Natural Gas - LNG

LNG or Liquefied Natural Gas

Liquefied Petroleum Gas - LPG

LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Low Pressure Gas Pipe Sizing

Apartments gas pipe service lines

Medical Gas Piping

Piping systems for medical gases

Medical Gases - Piping Dimensions

Copper tube dimensions used for medical gases

Methane - Convert between Liquid and Gaseous Units

Convert between liquid and gaseous unit for LNG or Methane

Natural Gas - Demand with Multiple Apartments

Multiple apartments and natural gas diversity and demand

Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - imperial units

Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing pipes for natural gas - pressures above 5 psi (35 kPa)

Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Metric values

Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing Calculator

Calculate the capacities and dimensions of natural gas pipe lines

Natural Gas Consumption

Natural gas consumption in common equipment - boiling pans, ovens, cookers, kettles and more

Natural Gas Consumption - Laboratory Diversity

Use of natural gas in laboratory outlets

Natural Gas Glossary

Natural gas is used extensively in residential, commercial and industrial applications

Natural Gas Meters - Capacities

Different types of natural gas meters and their capacities

Orifices - Air Discharge

Discharging air volume through orifices

Orifices - Capacities with Natural Gas

Natural gas capacities for orifices

Pascal's Laws

Pascal's laws relates to pressures in fluids

Pneumatic Air Cylinders - Force Exerted

Pneumatic air cylinders - air pressure and force exerted calculator

Pneumatic Cylinder Velocity

Calculating pneumatic cylinder velocity


Introduction to pressure - psi and Pa - online pressure units converter

Pressure Converter

Convert from kPa to psi and inches of Water and Mercury

Pressure and Water Content in Saturated Air

Air pressure and maximum water content in saturated air

Propane - Latent Heat of Vaporization

Latent heat when propane vaporize

Propane Air Mixture

Energy content and specific gravity of propane air mixtures

Propane Butane Mixures - Evaporation Pressures

Evaporation pressures of propane butane mixtures

Propane Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Imperial units

Propane Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Metric units

Propane Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing propane gas pipe lines - for pressures above 5 psig (35 kPa)

Properties of Air - temperatures ranging -100 to 1000 oF

Dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat and Prandtl number of air at moderate pressure - Imperial units

Pumps, Compressors, Blowers and Fans

Comparing pumps, compressors, blowers and fans

Rating of Air Compressors and Air Equipment

Common terms rating air flow capacity are ICFM, FAD, ANR, SCFM or nl/min

Relief Valves - Length of Vent Lines

Calculating length of safety valves vent pipes

SCFM versus ACFM and ICFM

Actual air compressor capacity (ACFM) versus standard air capacity (SCFM) and inlet air capacity (ICFM)

Safety Relief Valves Capacities

Safety valves and maximum free air relief capacities

Safety Valves in Gas and Vapor Systems

Calculate relief valves in gas and vapor systems

Single Acting Pneumatic Pistons - Air Volume Used

Air volume used by single-acting pistons

Specific Heat Ratio of Air

Specific Heat Ratio of air at temperatures from -40 - 1000oC (-40 - 1500oF) at standard atmospheric pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Speed of Sound in Air

Speed of sound in air at temperatures from -40 - 1000oC (-40 - 1500oF) at standard atmospheric pressure - Imperial and SI Units

Steam and Vapor Enthalpy

Introduction and definition of vapor and steam enthalpy - specific enthalpy of saturated liquid, saturated vapor and superheated vapor

The Individual and Universal Gas Constants

The Individual and Universal Gas Constants used in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics

Types of Air Compressors

Reciprocating, rotary screw and rotary centrifugal air compressors

Underground Natural Gas Pipes and Minimum Cover

Burial dept and minimum cover of natural gas pipes


Vacuum is defined as air pressure below atmospheric pressure

Vacuum - Evacuation Time

Vacuum pumps - calculating flow rate and required evacuation time

Vacuum - Expansion Air Ratio

Convert vacuum air volume to standard air volume

Vacuum Pipe Lines - Pressure Drops

Vacuum pipes and pressure drops

Vacuum Pipes - Velocities

Vacuum pipes - air velocity diagrams

Vacuum Pressure - Units Converter

Vacuum converting units - % vacuum - mm Mercury - psi - torr - micron - kPa

Vacuum Pumps - Exhaust Pipes

Capacities of vacuum pump exhaust pipes

Vacuum and Measurement of Flow

Measuring volume flow in vacuum

Vapor Pressure

Vapor and saturation pressure for some common liquids

Vapor and Steam

Introduction to vapor and steam

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