# Thermodynamics

## Effects of work, heat and energy on systems

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### 1st Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics simply states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed (conservation of energy). Thus power generation processes and energy sources actually involve conversion of energy from one form to another, rather than creation of energy from nothing

### 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

The second law is concerned with entropy, which is a measure of disorder. The second law says that the entropy of the universe increases

### Absorbed Solar Radiation

Solar radiation absorbed by various materials

### Aluminum - Radiation Heat Emissivity

Radiation heat emissivity of unoxidized, oxidized and polished aluminum

### Arithmetic and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference - *AMTD* - and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference - *LMTD* - formulas with examples - Online Mean Temperature Calculator

### Bimetallic Strips

Heat and bending of bimetallic strips

### Carnot Efficiency

The efficiency of the Carnot cycle

### Coefficients of Linear Thermal Expansion

Linear temperature expansion coefficients for aluminum, copper, glass, iron and other common materials

### Conductive Heat Transfer

Heat transfer takes place as conduction in a soilid if there is a temperature gradient

### Convective Heat Transfer

Heat transfer between a solid and a moving fluid is called convection. This is a short tutorial about convective heat transfer

### Cooling Mode - Heat Flux

Heat fluxes for various cooling or heat transfer modes

### Critical Points of some Substances

Critical points of some common substances like air, argon, helium and more

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### Density of Liquid - versus change in Pressure and Temperature

Density and specific volume of a liquid with changing pressure and temperature

### Diffusion Coefficients

A substance will flow from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration

### Dowtherm A

Physical properties of Dowtherm A

### Efficiency

Efficiency is the ratio between the useful energy output and the energy input

### Emissivity Coefficients of some common Materials

The radiation heat transfer emissivity coefficient of some common materials as aluminum, brass, glass and many more

### Energy

Energy is the capacity to do work

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### Energy Conversion Factors

Convert between energy units

### Energy Storage Water - kWh

Thermal heat energy stored in water by temperature

### Energy Storage and Density

Energy density - by weight and volume - for some ways to store energy

### Energy Transfer Equation

Fluid energy transfer

### Fouling and Reduced Heat Transfer in Heat Exchangers

The heat-transfer in a heat exchanger is reduced by fouling

### Freezing Mixtures and Cooling Agents

Freezing mixtures, cooling agents and freezing points

### Freezing and Melting Points for common Liquids

Common fluids and their freezing and melting points

### Heat Capacity

The heat capacity of a substance is the amount of heat required to change its temperature by one degree, and has units of energy per degree

### Heat Storage in Materials

Energy stored as sensible heat in materials

### Heat Transfer Coefficients in Heat Exchangers

Overall heat transfer coefficients in heat exchanger constructions - tubular, plate and spiral

### Heat Up Applications - Energy Required and Heat Transfer Rates

Energy required when heating up substances

### Heat Value

The gross (high) and net (low) heating values

### Heat, Work and Energy

Heat, work and energy tutorial - essentials as specific heat

### Ideal Gas Properties of Nitrogen

Enthalpy, internal energy and entropy of Nitrogen

### Latent Heat of Melting common Materials

Latent heat of fusion when changing between solid or liquid state for common materials like aluminum, ammonia, glycerin, water and more

### Linear Thermal Expansion

Linear temperature expansion - online calculator

### Microwave Heating

Heating with microwaves

### Mollier Chart for Water - Imperial Units

Mollier chart for water in English Units

### Mollier Chart for Water - Metric Units

Mollier chart for water in Metric Units

### Mollier Diagram for Water-Steam

Enthalpy-entropy diagram for water and steam

### Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Calculate overall heat transfer coefficients for walls or heat exchangers

### Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for some Combinations of Fluids and Heat Exchanger Surfaces

Average overall heat transmission coefficients for some common fluids and surface combinations as Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more

### Power Plant Performance Efficiency

Power plant heat rate, thermal efficiency, capacity factor, load factor, economic efficiency, operational efficiency, energy efficiency

### Properties and State

Concept of properties and state

### Radiation Constants Building Materials

The radiation constant is the product between the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and the emissivity constant for a material

### Radiation Emissivities of some common Materials

Radiation emissivities of some common materials like water, ice, snow, grass and more

### Radiation Heat Transfer

Heat transfer due to emission of electromagnetic waves is known as thermal radiation

### Rankine Efficiency

The efficiency of the Rankine cycle

### Resulting Temperature when Mixing Liquids or Solids

Calculate the final temperature when liquids or solids are mixed

### Salt Hydrates - Melting points and Latent Energy

Melting points and latent energy of salt hydrates

### Solids - Volume Expansion Coefficients

Cubical expansion coefficients for solids

### Specific Heat

Specific Heat is the amount of heat required to change a unit mass of a substance by one degree in temperature

### Specific Heat - Online Converter

Online specific heat converter with the most commonly used units

### Standardized Enthalpies and Entropies

Standardized enthalpies and entropies of some common substances

### Surface - Radiation Absorptivity

Radiation surface absorptivity

### Temperature

Introduction to temperature - including Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin and Rankine definitions - an online temperature converter

### Temperature Expansion Coefficients for some common Piping Materials

Expansion coefficients for some common materials used for pipes and tubes - like aluminum, carbon steel, cast iron, PVC, HDPE and more

### Thermal Conductivities for some common Liquids

Some fluids and their thermal conductivities

### Thermal Conductivities of Heat Exchanger Materials

Typical heat exchanger materials and their thermal conductivities

### Thermal Conductivity Conversion Factors

Convert between thermal conductivity units

### Thermal Conductivity Online Converter

Convert thermal conductivities

### Thermal Conductivity of common Materials and Gases

Thermal conductivity of gases, insulation products, aluminum, asphalt, brass, copper, steel and other common materials

### Thermal Expansion - Superficial i.e. Area

Superficial i.e area temperature expansion - online calculator

### Thermal Resistivity and Conductivity

Thermal resistivity and conductivity

### Thermal Transmittance and Thermal Resistance

Thermal transmittance U and thermal resistance R

### Thermodynamic Terms

Common thermodynamic terms - potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal or internal energy, chemical energy, nuclear energy and more

### Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a substance is zero if the absolute temperature is zero

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Units of Heat - *BTU, Calorie and Joule*

The most common units of heat are *BTU - British Thermal Unit, Calorie and Joule*

### Volumetric - or Cubic Thermal Expansion

Volumetric temperature expansion with online calculator

### Volumetric or Cubical Expansion Coefficients of Liquids

Volumetric expansion coefficients of some common liquids

### Water - Specific Gravity versus Temperature

Specific gravity of water in the range of *32 to 600 ^{o}F*

### Work

Work done is the product of applied force and distance

### Zeroth Law of Temperature

Temperature and heat flow