The effects of work, heat and energy on a system

1st Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics simply states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed (conservation of energy). Thus power generation processes and energy sources actually involve conversion of energy from one form to another, rather than creation of energy from nothing

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

The second law is concerned with entropy, which is a measure of disorder. The second law says that the entropy of the universe increases

Absorbed Solar Radiation

Solar radiation absorbed by various materials

Bimetallic Strips

Bending of bimetallic strips due to heat

Carnot Efficiency

The efficiency of the Carnot cycle

Coefficients of Linear Thermal Expansion

Linear temperature expansion coefficients for some common materials as aluminum, copper, glass, iron and many more

Conductive Heat Transfer

Heat transfer takes place as conduction if there is a temperature gradient in the solid

Convective Heat Transfer

Heat transfer between a solid and a moving fluid is called convection. This is a short tutorial about convective heat transfer

Cooling Mode and Heat Flux

Heat flux for various cooling modes

Critical Points some common Substances

Critical points of some common substances like air, argon, helium and more

Density of Fluids - Changing Pressure and Temperature

Calculating density of fluids when changing pressure and temperature

Diffusion Coefficients

A substance will flow from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration

Dowtherm A

Physical properties of Dowtherm A


Ratio between useful energy output and energy input

Emissivity Coefficients of some common Materials

The radiation heat transfer emissivity coefficient of some common materials as aluminum, brass, glass and many more


Energy is the capacity to do work

Energy Conversion Factors

Convert between energy units

Energy Density for various Storage Forms

Energy density by weight and volume for some common storage forms

Energy Storage in Water - kWh

Thermal heat energy stored in water

Energy Transfer Equation

Fluid energy transfer

Fouling and Heat Transfer

The overall heat-transfer coefficient of a heat exchanger under operating conditions is reduced by fouling

Freezing Mixtures and Cooling Agents

Temperature with freezing mixtures and cooling agents

Freezing and Melting Points of some Common Liquids

Common fluids and their freezing and melting points

Heat Capacity

The heat capacity of a substance is the amount of heat required to change its temperature by one degree, and has units of energy per degree

Heat Exchangers - Arithmetic and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference - AMTD - and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference - LMTD - formulas with examples - Online Mean Temperature Calculator

Heat Storage in Materials

Physical properties of sensible heat storage materials

Heat Transfer Coefficients in Heat Exchangers

Overall heat transfer coefficients in some common heat exchanger constructions - tubular, plate and spiral

Heat, Work and Energy

Tutorial to heat, work and energy - essentials as specific heat and specific heat capacity

Heating Up Applications - the Energy Required and Heat Transfer Rate

Energy required heating up substances

Heating Value

The gross (high) and net (low) heating values

Ideal Gas Properties of Nitrogen

Enthalpy, internal energy and entropy of Nitrogen

Latent Heat of Melting of some common Materials

The latent heat of fusion when changing between solid or liquid state of some common materials as aluminum, ammonia, glycerin, water and more

Microwave Heating

Heating with microwaves

Mollier Chart Water - Imperial Units

Mollier chart in English Units

Mollier Chart Water - Metric Units

Mollier chart in Metric Units

Mollier Diagram for Water-Steam

Enthalpy-entropy diagram for water and steam

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Calculate overall heat transfer coefficient - walls or heat exchangers

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for some common Fluids and Heat Exchanger Surfaces

Average overall heat transmission coefficients for some common fluids and surface combinations as Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more

Power Plant Performance Factors

Power plants and heat rate, thermal efficiency, capacity factor, load factor, economic efficiency, operational efficiency, energy efficiency

Properties and State

Concept of properties and state

Radiation Constants of some common Building Materials

The radiation constant is the product between the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and the emissivity constant for the material

Radiation Emissivity of some common Materials

Radiation emissivity of some common materials - Water, Ice, Snow, Grass ..

Radiation Heat Emissivity for Aluminum

Radiation heat emissivity of unoxidized, oxidized and polished aluminum

Radiation Heat Transfer

Heat transfer due to emission of electromagnetic waves is known as thermal radiation

Rankine Efficiency

The efficiency of the Rankine cycle

Resistivity from Conductivity

Thermal resistivity and conductivity

Salt Hydrates - Melting points and Latent Energy

Melting points and latent energy of salt hydrates

Specific Heat

The Specific Heat is the amount of heat required to change a unit mass of a substance by one degree in temperature

Specific Heat Converter

Online specific heat calculator with the most common units

Standardized Enthalpies and Entropies

Standardized enthalpies and entropies of some common substances

Surface Absorptivity

Radiation surface absorptivity


A short introduction to temperature - including Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin and Rankine definitions - online temperature converter

Temperature Expansion Coefficients of some common Piping Materials

Expansion coefficients of some common materials used for pipes and tubes - aluminum, carbon steel, cast iron, PVC, HDPE and more

Temperature in Mixed Liquids or Solids

Final temperature when mixing liquids or solids

Thermal Conductivities of Heat Exchanger Materials

Typical heat exchanger materials and thermal conductivities

Thermal Conductivity Common Liquids

Common fluids and their thermal conductivity

Thermal Conductivity Conversion Factors

Convert between thermal conductivity units

Thermal Conductivity Online Converter

An online thermal conductivity calculator

Thermal Conductivity of some common Materials and Gases

Thermal conductivity of some common materials and gases - like insulation products, aluminum, asphalt, brass, copper, steel ...

Thermal Expansion - Linear

Linear temperature expansion - online calculator

Thermal Expansion - Superficial i.e. Area

Superficial i.e area temperature expansion - online calculator

Thermal Transmittance - U and Thermal Resistance - R

Thermal transmittance - U - from thermal resistance

Thermodynamic Terms

Common thermodynamic terms - potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal or internal energy, chemical energy, nuclear energy and more

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a substance is zero if the absolute temperature is zero

Units of Heat - BTU, Calorie and Joule

The most common units of heat are BTU - British Thermal Unit, Calorie and Joule

Volume Expansion Coefficients of Solids

Cubical expansion coefficients for some common solids

Volumetric - Cubic - Thermal Expansion

Cubical expansion when changing temperature - online calculator

Volumetric - Cubical - Expansion Coefficients of some common Liquids

Volumetric expansion coefficients of some common fluids

Water - Temperature and Specific Gravity

Specific gravity of water ranging 32 - 600 oF


The amount of work done is the product of the applied force and the distance

Zeroth Law of Temperature

Temperature and heat flow

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