# Electrical

## Amps and electrical wiring, AWG - wire gauge, electrical formulas, motors and units

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### 12 Volt 2% Wire Loss Chart

Maximum distance of various gauge two conductor copper wire

### AWG - American Wire Gauge and Circular Mils

American Wire Gauge - AWG - and circular mils

### AWG to square mm Wire Gauge Conversion

Convert American Wire Gauge (AWG) to square mm cross sectional area

### Active, Apparent and Reactive Power

Apparent, True Applied and Reactive Power - kVA

### Amps and Wire Gauge - 12V Circuit

Maximum current - amps - through a 12V circuit in combination with size (AWG) and length of wire

### Asynchronous Motors - Electrical Data

Electrical motor data - nominal current, fuse, start ampere, contactor and circuit breaker of asynchronous motors

### Automotive 12 Volts Electric Wiring

Current load and maximum wire length

### CE Marking

The European Machine Directive

### CM - Circular Mil Area

The circular mil area - CM - is a unit denoting the cross-sectional size of a wire or cable

### Capacitance in Parallel and Serial Connections

Capacitors in parallel and series connections

### Capacitors

Capacitors and capacitance - charge and unit of charge

### Capacitors - Energy Stored

Energy stored and potential power generated from capacitors

### Circles within Rectangles

The maximum number of circles packed in a rectangle

### Circuit Wiring - Single Phase (230V) Electrical Motors

Recommended copper wire gage and transformer size for single phase - 230 Volts - electrical motors

### Circuit Wiring - Three Phase (230 & 460V) Electrical Motors

Recommended copper wire gage and transformer size for Three Phase - 230 & 460V - electrical motors

### Color Temperatures

Light sources and color irradiation

### Colour Code for Fixed Resistors

Value and tolerance

### Conductor Resistance

Resistance in plain copper wire conductor

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### Conductors

Conductors and conductivity

### Conduit Sizes

Electrical conduit trade sizes, max distance between supports

### Converting Ampere between Single Phase and 3 Phase

Converting amperage between single phase (120, 240 and 480 Voltage) and three phase (240 and 480 Voltage)

### Converting from NEMA to IEC Enclosure Classifications

Converting from NEMA enclosure classifications to IEC enclosure classifications

### Copper Wire

Gage, circular mils, electrical resistance and weight

### Coulomb's Law

The electric force acting on a point charge

### Current Division

Current division circuit

### Current ratings for installation

Cables for fixed installation within buildings A1, A2, B1 and B2

### DIN VDE Standards

DIN VDE power installations

### Electric Circuit Diagram Template

Use Google Drive to make online shareable electric circuit diagrams

### Electric Shock

Physiological effect of electric shock

### Electric Wire 240 Volts Single-Phase, Length and Voltage Drop

Wire length versus wire size with max. 2% voltage drop

### Electric Wire Cross-Section Formulas

Calculate single and bunched wire cross-sections and diameters

### Electrical Formulas

The most common used electrical formulas - Ohms Law and combinations

### Electrical Heating of a Mass

Temperature change when mass is electrical heated

### Electrical Motor - Full Load Current

Full load current - 460 Volts, 230 Volts and 115 Volts motors - single and 3-phase

### Electrical Motor Calculator

Online electric motor calculator - calculate amps, hp and kVA

### Electrical Motor Efficiency

Calculating electric motor efficiency

### Electrical Motor Frame Dimensions

NEMA electrical motor frame sizes

### Electrical Motor Locked Rotor Indicating Code Letters

Indicating locked rotor code letters for electrical motors

### Electrical Motors - Efficiency Ratings

NEMA - electrical motors efficiency ratings

### Electrical Motors - HP, Torque and RPM

Horsepower versus torque and motor velocity - rpm

### Electrical Motors - Insulation Classes

Temperature and insulation classes

### Electrical Motors and Heat Loss

Heat gain from electrical motors to the surroundings

### Electrical Potential - e.m.f

Change in electrical potential between two points

### Electrical Units

Definition of common electrical units as Ampere, Volt, Ohm, Siemens and more.

### Electrode Potential and Galvanic Corrosion

An introduction to the electrochemical series and corrosion of metals

### Extension Cords

Size of extension cords - full load rating 115 V

### Frequency and Speed of Electrical Motors

The velocity of 2, 4, 6 and 8 poles electrical motors at 50 Hz and 60 Hz

### Full-load Currents in DC Motors

Current - Amps - in 120 and 240 Volt DC motors

### IEC - NEMA Standard Torques

Comparing IEC and NEMA torque classifications of electrical motors

### IEC Duty Cycles

The eight - S1 - S8 - IEC duty cycles of operating electrical motors

### IP - Ingress Protection Ratings

IP - Ingress Protection rating is used to specify the environmental protection - electrical enclosure - of electrical equipment

### Inductance

Electro Magnetic Field - *EMF* - induced into a circuit

### Inductance in Serial and Parallel Connections

Serial and parallel inductance

### Inductors - Energy Stored

Energy stored in the magnetic field

### Kirchhoff's Laws

Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws

### Letter and Digit Code for Resistors

Indicating value of resistors by letter and digit code

### Lights - Installed Power

Installed light power in some common types of buildings and rooms

### Maximum Current for Wire

Maximum current for copper and aluminum wire

### Motor Wiring Data - 480 Volt

Motor wiring data - NEMA Amps, Starter size, HMCP Size .. - motors ranging 1/2 - 500 HP

### NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association

National Electrical Manufacturers Association

### NEMA A, B, C and D Design

NEMA has established four different designs - A, B, C and D - for electrical induction motors

### NEMA Electrical Enclosure Types

General description of NEMA electrical enclosures types

### NEMA Enclosure Standards of Electrical Motors

The NEMA enclosure standards of electrical motors

### NEMA Insulation Classes

Insulation systems are rated by standard NEMA classifications to maximum allowable operating temperatures

### Nema Starters

Nema size contactors

### Ohm's Law

The relationships between voltage, current and resistance

### Online Wire Gauge - AWG - Calculator

Calculate AWG, mil, mm, CM or square mm

### Parallel Circuits

Resistors connected in parallel networks

### Potential Divider

Output voltage from a potential divider

### Power Factor for a Three-Phase Electrical Motor

Power Factor definition for a three-phase electrical motor

### Power Wiring Color Codes

Typical power wiring color codes

### Power and Horsepower in Electrical Motors

Electrical power is rated in Horsepower or Watts

### Rechargeable Batteries

Properties of rechargeable batteries or accumulators

### Relative Permittivity - Dielectric Constant

Some common materials and relative permittivity

### Resistance Wires

Electric resistance and temperature rise in Nickel-Chromium resistance wires

### Resistance and Conductance

The reciprocal of electrical Resistance is called Conductance

### Resistance and Resistivity

Electrical resistance and resistivity

### Resistance in Serial and Parallel Connections

Resistors in parallel and serial conections

### Resistivity of Soil

Types of soil and mean value of resistivity

### Resistivity, Conductivity and Temperature Coefficients for some Common Materials

Resistivity, conductivity and temperature coefficients for some common materials as silver, gold, platinum, iron and more - Including a tutorial explanation of resistivity and conductivity

### Resistors - Standard Values

Preferred number series for resistors

### SWG - Standard Wire Gauge

Imperial Standard Wire Gauge for sheet metal and wire

### Series Circuits

Voltage and current

### Service Factor

The service factor - *SF* - is a measure of periodically overload capacity at which a motor can operate without overload or damage

### Single Phase Power Equations

Single phase electrical power equations

### Slip in Electrical Induction Motors

The difference between the synchronous and asynchronous speed - also named rated speed - is

### Smaller Circles in a Larger Circle

A tool to estimate the number of smaller circles that fits in a larger circle - or how many pipes or wires that fits in a larger pipe

### Speed of Electrical Motors with operating Loads

The speed of operating electrical motors with loads, are lower than the motors synchronous speed (no load)

### Synchronous Speed of Electrical Motors

The speed at which an induction motor will operate depends on the input power frequency and the number of electrical magnetic poles in the motor

### Synchronous and Full Load Speed of Induction Motors

Synchronous and approximate full load speed of amplitude current (AC) induction motors

### Three Phase Electrical Motors

Full load amps - wire and conduit size

### Three-Phase Power Equations

Electrical 3-phase equations

### Torques in Electrical Induction Motors

There are some common torques used to describe and classify electrical motors

### Transformer

Alternating voltage and induced e.m.f in an ideal transformer

### Transients

A transient is a high voltage spike caused by external or internal transient sources

### Voltage Drop

Ohm's law and calculating voltage drop

### Voltage Imbalance and Derating Factor in Polyphase Motors

The efficiency of an electrical polyphase motor decreases with increased voltage imbalance.

### Wire - Convert from Square mm to Diameter mm

Convert from square mm to diameter mm

### Wire Gauges - Current Ratings

The common US wire gauges - AWG gauges and current ratings