# Electrical

## Electrical units, amps and electrical wiring, wire gauge and AWG, electrical formulas and motors

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### 12 Volt Electric Wire - Length and Current

Maximum length of copper wire with 2% voltage drop

### AC Circuit

An alternating current - AC - is generated by a sinusoidal voltage source

### AWG - American Wire Gauge and Circular Mils

AWG, diameter mil, circular mil, diameter in mm and area in mm^{2}

### Active, Apparent and Reactive Power

Apparent, True Applied and Reactive Power - kVA

### Amps and Wire Gauge - 12V Circuit

Maximum current - amps - through a 12V circuit - related to size (AWG) and length of wire

### Asynchronous Motors - Electrical Data

Electrical motor data - nominal current, fuse, start ampere, contactor and circuit breaker of asynchronous motors

### Automotive 12 Volt Electric Wiring

12 V current load and maximum wire lengths

### CE Marking

The European Machine Directive

### CM - Circular Mil Area

The circular mil area - CM - is a unit denoting the cross-sectional size of a wire or a cable

### Capacitors

Capacitors and capacitance - charge and unit of charge

### Capacitors - Energy Stored

Potential power and energy stored in capacitors

### Capacitors - Parallel and Serial Connections

Capacitance in parallel and series connected circuits

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### Circles within Rectangles

The maximum number of circles it is possible to pack in a rectangle

### Circuit Wiring - Single Phase (230V) Electrical Motors

Recommended copper wire gage and transformer size for single phase - 230 Volts - electrical motors

### Circuit Wiring - Three Phase (230 & 460V) Electrical Motors

Recommended copper wire gage and transformer size for Three Phase - 230 & 460V - electrical motors

### Color Temperatures

Light source and color irradiation

### Conductors

Conductors and conductivity - Electrical conductivity of some common materials

### Conduits Sizes

Electrical conduits trade sizes and max distance between supports

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### Convert Ampere between Single Phase and 3 Phase

Convert amperage between single phase (120, 240 and 480 Voltage) and three phase (240 and 480 Voltage)

### Copper Wire - Electrical Resistance

Electrical resistance in plain copper wire

### Copper Wire Properties

Gage, circular mils, electrical resistance and weight

### Coulomb's Law

Electric force acting on a point charge

### Current Divider - Online Calculator

Electric current divider

### DC Motors - Full-load Currents

Full load amps in 120 and 240 volts DC motors

### DIN VDE Standards

DIN VDE power installations

### Electric Cable Installations - Current Ratings

Current ratings and cable sizes for fixed installations within buildings

### Electric Circuit Diagram - Template

Use Google Drive to make online shareable electric circuit diagrams

### Electric Motor Calculator

Calculate amps, hp and kVA

### Electric Shocks

Physiological effects of electric shocks

### Electric Wire 240 Volts Single-Phase - Maximum Length

Maximum length of wire with 2% voltage drop

### Electric Wires - Cross-Section Equations

Calculating single and bunched wire cross-sections and diameters

### Electrical Formulas

The most common used electrical formulas - Ohms Law and combinations

### Electrical Heating of a Mass

Electric heating of object and temperature change

### Electrical Inductance - Serial and Parallel Connections

Serial and parallel inductance

### Electrical Motor - Locked Rotor Indicating Code Letters

Locked rotor indicating code letters electrical motors

### Electrical Motor Efficiency

Calculating electric motor efficiency

### Electrical Motor Efficiency Ratings

NEMA - electrical motor efficiency ratings

### Electrical Motors - Frame Sizes

NEMA electrical motor frame sizes

### Electrical Motors - Full Load Currents

Full load currents for 460 volts, 230 volts and 115 volts motors - single and 3-phase

### Electrical Motors - Insulation Classes

Temperature and insulation classes for electrical motors

### Electrical Motors - Power and Torque vs. Speed

Speed of electrical motors - output power and torque

### Electrical Motors and Heat Loss

Heat loss from an electrical motor to the surroundings

### Electrical Resistance - Series and Parallel Networks

Resistors in parallel and serial connections

### Electrical Units

Definition of common electrical units - like Ampere, Volt, Ohm, Siemens

### Electrode Potential and Galvanic Corrosion

Introduction to electro chemical series and corrosion of metals

### Electromotive Force - e.m.f

Change in electrical potential between two points

### Extension Cords

Size of extension cords - full load ratings with 115 V

### Frequency and Speed of Electrical Motors

The velocity of 2, 4, 6 and 8 poles electrical motors at 50 Hz and 60 Hz

### IEC - NEMA Standard Torques

IEC and NEMA torque classifications of electrical motors

### IEC Duty Cycles

The eight - S1 - S8 - IEC duty cycles of operating electrical motors

### IP - Ingress Protection Rating

IP - Ingress Protection rating is used to specify the environmental protection - or electrical enclosure - of electrical equipment

### Inductance

Electro Magnetic Field - *EMF* - induced into a circuit

### Induction Motors - Synchronous and Full Load Speed

Synchronous and full load speed of amplitude current (AC) induction motors

### Inductors and Stored Energy

Energy stored in magnetic fields

### Kirchhoff's Laws

Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws

### Lights - Installed Power

Light power in common types of buildings and rooms

### Luminous Efficacy

Light sources production of visible light

### Motor Wiring Data - 480 Volt

Motor wiring data - NEMA Amps, Starter size, HMCP Size - motors ranging 1/2 - 500 HP

### NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association

National Electrical Manufacturers Association

### NEMA A, B, C and D Electrical Motor Design

NEMA has established four different designs - A, B, C and D for electrical induction motors

### NEMA Enclosure Standards of Electrical Motors

NEMA enclosure standard for electrical motors

### NEMA Insulation Classes

Electrical insulation systems rated by standard NEMA classifications to maximize allowable operating temperatures

### NEMA and IEC Enclosure Classifications

NEMA enclosure classifications versus IEC enclosure classifications

### Nema Starters

Nema sized contactors or starters

### Ohm's Law

Voltage, current and resistance

### Online Wire Gauge - AWG - Calculator

Calculate AWG, mil, mm, CM or square mm

### Parallel Circuits

Resistance, voltage and current in parallel networks

### Permeability

Electromagnetism and formation of magnetic fields

### Potential Divider - Online Calculator

Output voltage from a potential divider

### Power Factor Three-Phase Electrical Motors

Definition three-phase electrical motors power factor

### Power Wiring - Color Codes

Color codes used in power wiring

### Rechargeable Batteries - Battery Life Calculator

Properties of rechargeable batteries and accumulators

### Relative Permittivity - the Dielectric Constant

Some common materials and their relative permittivity

### Relative and Absolute Voltages

Electric circuit and voltage at any point

### Resistance and Conductance

The reciprocal of electrical resistance is conductance

### Resistance and Resistivity

Electrical resistance and resistivity

### Resistivity and Conductivity - Temperature Coefficients for Common Materials

Resistivity, conductivity and temperature coefficients for some common materials as silver, gold, platinum, iron and more

### Resistors - Color Codes Calculator

Color codes for fixed resistors - values and tolerances - online calculator

### Resistors - Letters and Digit Codes

Letter and digit codes to indicating resistor values

### Resistors - Standard Values

Preferred number series for resistors

### SWG - Standard Wire Gauge

Imperial Standard Wire Gauge used for sheet metal and wire

### Series Circuits

Voltage and current in series circuits

### Service Factor

Service factor - *SF* - is a measure of periodically overload capacity at which a motor can operate without damaging

### Shaft Power from Electrical Motors

Electrical motors are rated in horsepower or watt

### Single Phase Power Equations

Single phase electrical power equations

### Slip in Electrical Induction Motors

Difference between the synchronous and asynchronous speed - also named rated speed

### Smaller Circles in a Larger Circle

Estimating number of smaller circles that fits in a larger circle - ex. how many pipes or wires fits in a larger pipe or conduit

### Soil - Resistivity

Types of soil and their mean value of resistivities

### Speed of Electrical Motors with operating Loads

Speed of an operating electrical motor with load is lower than the synchronous speed (no load) of the motor

### Synchronous Speed of Electrical Motors

The speed at which an induction motor will operate depends on the input power frequency and the number of electrical magnetic poles in the motor

### Three Phase Electrical Motors

Full load amps, wire and conduit sizes for three phase electrical motors

### Three-Phase Power Equations

Electrical 3-phase equations

### Torques in Electrical Induction Motors

Torques describes and classifies electrical motors

### Transformers

Alternating voltage and induced electro magnetic field - e.m.f. - in a transformer

### Transients

A transient is a high voltage spike caused by an external or internal transient source

### Types of NEMA Electrical Enclosures

Description of NEMA electrical enclosures types

### Voltage Drop in Electric Circuit

Ohm's law and voltage drop in a current circuit

### Voltage Imbalance - Derating Factor in Polyphase Motors

Efficiency of electrical polyphase motors decreases with increased voltage imbalance

### Voltage by Country

Typical voltages and frequencies used for domestic appliances

### Wire - Convert from Square mm to Diameter mm

Convert from square mm to diameter mm

### Wire - Maximum Currents

Maximum currents in copper and aluminum wire

### Wire Gauge Converter - AWG versus square mm

American Wire Gauge (AWG) versus square mm cross sectional area

### Wire Gauges - Current Ratings

Common US wire gauges - AWG gauges and their current ratings

### Wires - Electrical Resistance

Electric resistance and temperature rise in Nickel-Chromium wires