# Electrical

## Amps and electrical wiring, AWG - wire gauge, electrical formulas, motors and units

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### 12 Volt 2% Wire Loss Chart

Maximum distance of various gauge two conductor copper wire

### AWG - American Wire Gauge and Circular Mils

American Wire Gauge - AWG - and circular mils

### AWG to square mm Wire Gauge Conversion

Convert American Wire Gauge (AWG) to square mm cross sectional area

### Active, Apparent and Reactive Power

Apparent, True Applied and Reactive Power - kVA

### Amps and Wire Gauge - 12V Circuit

Maximum current - amps - through a 12V circuit - related to size (AWG) and length of wire

### Asynchronous Motors - Electrical Data

Electrical motor data - nominal current, fuse, start ampere, contactor and circuit breaker of asynchronous motors

### Automotive 12 Volts Electric Wiring

12 V current load and maximum wire lengths

### CE Marking

The European Machine Directive

### CM - Circular Mil Area

The circular mil area - CM - is a unit denoting the cross-sectional size of a wire or a cable

### Capacitance in Parallel and Serial Connections

Capacitors in parallel and series circuits

### Capacitors

Capacitors and capacitance - charge and unit of charge

### Capacitors - Energy Stored

Potential power and energy stored in capacitors

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### Circles within Rectangles

The maximum number of circles packed in a rectangle

### Circuit Wiring - Single Phase (230V) Electrical Motors

Recommended copper wire gage and transformer size for single phase - 230 Volts - electrical motors

### Circuit Wiring - Three Phase (230 & 460V) Electrical Motors

Recommended copper wire gage and transformer size for Three Phase - 230 & 460V - electrical motors

### Color Temperatures

Light sources and color irradiation

### Colour Code for Fixed Resistors

Value and tolerance

### Conductor Resistance

Resistance in plain copper wire conductor

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### Conductors

Conductors and conductivity

### Conduit Sizes

Electrical conduit trade sizes, max distance between supports

### Converting Ampere between Single Phase and 3 Phase

Converting amperage between single phase (120, 240 and 480 Voltage) and three phase (240 and 480 Voltage)

### Copper Wire Properties

Gage, circular mils, electrical resistance and weight

### Coulomb's Law

The electric force acting on a point charge

### Current Division

Current division circuit

### Current ratings for installation

Cables for fixed installation within buildings A1, A2, B1 and B2

### DIN VDE Standards

DIN VDE power installations

### Electric Circuit Diagram Template

Use Google Drive to make online shareable electric circuit diagrams

### Electric Motor Online Calculator

Calculate amps, hp and kVA

### Electric Shock

Physiological effect of electric shock

### Electric Wire 240 Volts Single-Phase, Length and Voltage Drop

Wire length versus wire size with max. 2% voltage drop

### Electric Wire Cross-Section Formulas

Calculate single and bunched wire cross-sections and diameters

### Electrical Formulas

The most common used electrical formulas - Ohms Law and combinations

### Electrical Heating of a Mass

Temperature change when mass is electrical heated

### Electrical Motor - Locked Rotor Indicating Code Letters

Locked rotor indicating code letters for electrical motors

### Electrical Motor Efficiency

Calculating electric motor efficiency

### Electrical Motors - Efficiency Ratings

NEMA - electrical motors efficiency ratings

### Electrical Motors - Frame Sizes

NEMA electrical motor frame sizes

### Electrical Motors - Full Load Currents

Full load currents for 460 volts, 230 volts and 115 volts motors - single and 3-phase

### Electrical Motors - Insulation Classes

Temperature and insulation classes for electrical motors

### Electrical Motors - Power, Torque and RPM

Horsepower vs. torque and motor velocity - rpm

### Electrical Motors and Heat Loss

Heat gain from electrical motors to surroundings

### Electrical Potential - e.m.f

Change in electrical potential between two points

### Electrical Units

Definition of common electrical units - like Ampere, Volt, Ohm, Siemens

### Electrode Potential and Galvanic Corrosion

Introduction to electro chemical series and corrosion of metals

### Extension Cords

Size of extension cords - full load rating 115 V

### Frequency and Speed of Electrical Motors

The velocity of 2, 4, 6 and 8 poles electrical motors at 50 Hz and 60 Hz

### Full-load Currents in DC Motors

Current - Amps - in 120 and 240 Volt DC motors

### IEC - NEMA Standard Torques

IEC and NEMA torque classifications of electrical motors

### IEC Duty Cycles

The eight - S1 - S8 - IEC duty cycles of operating electrical motors

### IP - Ingress Protection Rating

IP - Ingress Protection rating is used to specify environmental protection - electrical enclosure - of electrical equipment

### Inductance

The Electro Magnetic Field - *EMF* - induced into a circuit

### Inductance in Serial and Parallel Connections

Serial and parallel inductance

### Induction Motors - Synchronous and Full Load Speed

Synchronous and full load speed of amplitude current (AC) induction motors

### Inductors - Energy Stored

Energy stored in magnetic fields

### Kirchhoff's Laws

Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws

### Letter and Digit Code for Resistors

Indicating value of resistors by letter and digit code

### Lights - Installed Power

Installed light power in some common types of buildings and rooms

### Maximum Current for Wire

Maximum current for copper and aluminum wire

### Motor Wiring Data - 480 Volt

Motor wiring data - NEMA Amps, Starter size, HMCP Size - motors ranging 1/2 - 500 HP

### NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association

National Electrical Manufacturers Association

### NEMA A, B, C and D Electrical Motor Design

NEMA has established four different designs - A, B, C and D for electrical induction motors

### NEMA Enclosure Standards of Electrical Motors

NEMA enclosure standard for electrical motors

### NEMA Insulation Classes

Electrical insulation systems rated by standard NEMA classifications to maximize allowable operating temperatures

### NEMA and IEC Enclosure Classifications

NEMA enclosure classifications versus IEC enclosure classifications

### Nema Starters

Nema sized contactors or starters

### Ohm's Law

The relationships between voltage, current and resistance

### Online Wire Gauge - AWG - Calculator

Calculate AWG, mil, mm, CM or square mm

### Parallel Circuits

Resistance, voltage and current in parallel networks

### Potential Divider

Output voltage from a potential divider

### Power Factor Three-Phase Electrical Motors

Power Factor definition for three-phase electrical motors

### Power Wiring Color Codes

Typical power wiring color codes

### Power and Horsepower in Electrical Motors

Electrical motor power is rated in Horsepower or Watts

### Rechargeable Batteries

Properties of rechargeable batteries and accumulators

### Relative Permittivity - Dielectric Constant

Some common materials and relative permittivity

### Resistance Wires

Electric resistance and temperature rise in Nickel-Chromium resistance wires

### Resistance and Conductance

The reciprocal of electrical Resistance is called Conductance

### Resistance and Resistivity

Electrical resistance and resistivity

### Resistance in Serial and Parallel Connections

Resistors in parallel and serial conections

### Resistivity of Soil

Types of soil and mean value of resistivity

### Resistivity, Conductivity and Temperature Coefficients for some Common Materials

Resistivity, conductivity and temperature coefficients for some common materials as silver, gold, platinum, iron and more - Including a tutorial explanation of resistivity and conductivity

### Resistors - Standard Values

Preferred number series for resistors

### SWG - Standard Wire Gauge

Imperial Standard Wire Gauge for sheet metal and wire

### Series Circuits

Voltage and current in series circuits

### Service Factor

Service factor - *SF* - is a measure of periodically overload capacity at which a motor can operate without damaging

### Single Phase Power Equations

Single phase electrical power equations

### Slip in Electrical Induction Motors

Difference between the synchronous and asynchronous speed - also named rated speed

### Smaller Circles in Larger Circles

A tool to estimate the number of smaller circles that fits in a larger circle - or how many pipes or wires that fits in a larger pipe

### Speed of Electrical Motors with operating Loads

Speed of an operating electrical motor with load is lower than the synchronous speed (no load) of the motor

### Synchronous Speed of Electrical Motors

The speed at which an induction motor will operate depends on the input power frequency and the number of electrical magnetic poles in the motor

### TYpes of NEMA Electrical Enclosures

Description of NEMA electrical enclosures types

### Three Phase Electrical Motors

Full load amps, wire and conduit sizes for three phase electrical motors

### Three-Phase Power Equations

Electrical 3-phase equations

### Torques in Electrical Induction Motors

Torques used to describe and classify electrical motors

### Transformer

Alternating voltage and induced electro magnetic field - e.m.f. - in a transformer

### Transients

A transient is a high voltage spike caused by an external or internal transient source

### Voltage Drop

Ohm's law and voltage drop in a current circuit

### Voltage Imbalance - Derating Factor in Polyphase Motors

Efficiency of electrical polyphase motors decreases with increased voltage imbalance

### Wire - Convert from Square mm to Diameter mm

Convert from square mm to diameter mm

### Wire Gauges - Current Ratings

Common US wire gauges - AWG gauges and their current ratings