Steam and Condensate

Steam & condensate properties - capacities, pipe sizing, systems configuration and more

Control Valves and Equipment

Sizing and dimensions of control valves & equipment in steam and condensate systems

Flash Steam

Flash steam generation - thermodynamic fundamentals, heat loss, energy recovery and more

Heat Loss and Insulation

Steam and condensate pipes - heat loss uninsulated and insulated pipes, insulation thickness and more

Pipe Sizing

Sizing steam and condensate pipes - pressure loss, recommended velocity, capacity and more


Thermodynamics of steam and condensate applications

Air Humidifying with Steam - Imperial Units

Amount of vapor (lb/h in 100 cfm) in humid air

Air and Steam Mixture

With air in the steam the surface temperatures in heat exchangers will be lower - less heat than excepted will be transferred

Boiler Blowdown

Suspended solids entering boilers through feed water will remain behind when steam is generated. After a while the concentration of solids makes the operation of the boiler unsatisfactory

Boiler Blowdown Rate

Calculating boiler blowdown rate

Capacities of Condensate Lines - in kW

Maximum capacities of condensate lines in kW steam consumption

Classification of Steam Heating Systems

Steam systems carries heat through pipes from the boiler to consumers as heat exchangers, process equipment etc.

Classifications of Boilers

Classification of boilers according ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

Condensate Generated in Insulated Steam Pipes (kg/h per 100m)

Heat loss from steam pipes generates condensate which must be drained from the system

Condensate Generation in Cold Steam Pipes - SI Units

Huge amounts of condensate generated when cold steam pipes are heated up must be drained from the pipes

Condensate Generation in Cold Steam Pipes - Sizing Steam Traps

When cold steam pipes are heated up they generate huge amounts of condensate that must be drained away from the pipe through steam traps - in Imperial Units

Condensate Pumping

High temperatures and danger of impeller cavitation is the major challenge of condensate pumping

Design of Steam Heating Systems

An introduction to the basic design of steam heating systems

Entropy of Superheated Steam

A table with the entropy of steam superheated to temperatures above the boiling point with corresponding temperatures

Feed Water Treatment - Avoiding Corrosion

The make-up water to steam boilers should be treated with oxygen scavengers to avoid serious corrosion problems

Feeding Pumps - the Suction Lift in Steam Systems

The danger of impeller cavitations increases with water temperature

Feedwater Temperature and Steam Boiler Rating

Fraction of boiler rating under operating conditions

Flash Steam Generation - Imperial Units (psig)

When condensate passes steam traps - flash steam is generated

Flash Steam Generation - SI-units

When condensate leaves the steam traps - flash steam is generated. Amount of flash steam generated at different pressures - kN/m2

Flash Steam Generation (bar)

The amount of flash steam generated depends on steam pressure and pressure in the condensate lines

Flow Coefficient - Cv - and Formulas for Liquids, Steam and Gases - Online Calculators

Flow coefficient and proper design of control valves

Flow Coefficient Cv and Flow Factor Kv

Comparing the flow coefficient Cv with the flow factor Kv

Friction Resistance in Condensate Lines - Imperial Units

Friction or major resistance in condensate pipe lines

Heat Emission from Pipes Submerged in Oil or Fat

Heat emission from steam or water heating pipes submerged in oil or fat - assisted (forced) and natural circulation

Heat Emission from Pipes Submerged in Water

Heat transmission from steam or water heating pipes submerged in water - assisted (forced) and natural circulation

Heat Loss from Oil Filled Tanks

Heat loss from insulated and uninsulated, sheltered and exposed heated oil tanks

Heat Loss from Steam Pipes (btu/h per ft)

Amount of condensate generated in steam pipes depends on the heat loss from the pipe to the surroundings

Heating Capacity of Steam Radiators and Convectors

Steam radiators and steam convectors - heat capacities and temperature coefficients

Heating Systems - Steam and Condensate Loads

Calculating steam and condensate loads in steam heated systems

Humidifying Air with Steam - SI units

Use steam to humidify air

Insulated Steam Pipes - Generated Condensate

Heat loss from steam pipes generates condensate which must be drained from the system - imperial units

Moisture Holding Capacity of Air

Moisture holding capacity of air varies with temperature

Mollier Diagram for Water-Steam

Enthalpy-entropy diagram for water and steam

NDT - Non Destructive Testing

Non-destructive testing of constructions

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for some Fluids and Heat Exchanger Surfaces

Average overall heat transmission coefficients for some common fluids and surface combinations as Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more

Pipes and Tubes - Temperature Expansion

Pipes expands when heated and contracts when cooled and the expansion can be expressed with the expansion formula

Properties of Saturated Steam - Imperial Units

Steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge pressures and temperatures

Properties of Saturated Steam - Pressure in Bar

The Saturated Steam Table with properties as boiling point, specific volume, density, specific enthalpy, specific heat and latent heat of vaporization

Properties of Saturated Steam - SI Units

A Saturated Steam Table with steam properties as specific volume, density, specific enthalpy and specific entropy

Recommended Feed Water Chemistry Limits

Steam boilers and ABMA recommended feed water chemistry limits

Safety Valves in Low Pressure Steam Systems

Sizing safety valves after boiler output power in low pressure systems (kW and Btu/hr)

Sizing Condensate Pipe Lines - SI Units

Steam distribution systems and sizing condensate return lines

Sizing Steam Pipe Lines (lb/h)

Steam is a compressible gas where the capacity of a pipe line depends on the size of the pipe and the steam pressure.

Sizing Steam Pipes (kg/h)

Steam is a compressible gas where pipe line mass flow capacity depends on steam pressure.

Soft and Hard Water

Hard and soft water

Steam Consumption of some Typical Consumers

Steam consumption rates for typical consumers in different industries as bakeries, breweries, paper factories etc.

Steam Control Valves - Calculating Kv Values

Design of steam control valves and their Kv values

Steam Heating Processes - Load Calculating

Calculating the amount of steam in non-flow batch and continuous flow heating processes

Steam Pipe Pressure drop Calculator

Calculate pressure drop in steam distribution pipe lines

Steam Pipes - Heat Loss over a Year

Yearly heat loss in amount of coal or oil consumption for insulated and uninsulated steam pipes at different dimensions and operation times

Steam Pipes - Heat Loss (W/m)

Heat loss from un-insulated steam pipes

Steam Pipes - Maximum Allowable Flow and Pressure Drop

Pressure drop and maximum allowable flow

Steam Pipes - Sizing

Pipe sizing steam systems - major and minor loss in steam distribution systems

Steam Pipes - Thermal Expansion

Thermal expansion of steam pipes heated from surrounding temperature to operation temperature (mm pr. 100 m pipe)

Steam Tracing Pipe Lines

Steam trace pipe lines to maintain appropriate product temperatures

Steam Trap Selection Guide

A steam trap selection guide - Float & Thermostatic, Inverted Bucket, Bimetal Thermostatic, Impulse and Thermodynamic Disc steam traps

Thermal Expansion of Steam Pipes - inches

Steam pipes heated from surrounding temperatures to operation temperatures - expands

Vapor and Steam

Introduction to vapor and steam

Wet Steam Quality and the Dryness Fraction

An introduction and definition of vapor or steam quality and dryness fraction. Includes formulas for calculating wet steams enthalpy and specific volume

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