# Surface Tension

## Surface tension of liquids like water, mercury, oils and more

Surface tension is caused by the inward attraction of molecules at a boundary.

Surface tension is the energy required to stretch a unit change of surface area - and the surface tension will form a drop of liquid to a sphere since the sphere offers the smallest area for a definite volume.

Surface tension can be defined as

σ = Fs / l                                                  (1)

where

σ = surface tension (N/m)

Fs =  stretching force (N)

l = unit length (m)

### Alternative Units

Alternatively, surface tension is typically measured in dynes/cm, which is

• the force in dynes required to break a film of length 1 cm

or as surface energy J/m2 or alternatively ergs per square centimeter.

• 1 dynes/cm (dyn/cm) = 0.001 N/m = 0.0000685 lbf/ft = 0.571 10-5 lbf/in = 0.0022 poundal/ft = 0.00018 poundal/in = 1.0 mN/m = 0.001 J/m2 = 1.0 erg/cm2 = 0.00010197 kgf/m

Common Imperial units used are lb/ft and lb/in.

### Surface Tension of Water

Surface tension of water at some temperatures:

Temperature
(oC)
Surface Tension
- σ -
(N/m)
0 0.0757
10 0.0742
20 0.0728
30 0.0712
40 0.0696
50 0.0679
60 0.0662
70 0.0644
80 0.0626
90 0.0608
100 0.0588

### Surface Tension of some common Fluids

• Acetic acid : 0.028 (N/m)
• Acetone : 0.024 (N/m)
• Aniline : 0.043 (N/m)
• Benzene : 0.0289 (N/m)
• Benzonitrile : 0.039 (N/m)
• Bromobenzene : 0.036 (N/m)
• n-Butane : 0.023 (N/m)
• Diethyl ether : 0.017 (N/m)
• Carbon disulfide : 0.032 (N/m)
• Carbon tetrachloride : 0.027 (N/m)
• Clorobenzene : 0.036 (N/m)
• Chloroform : 0.0271 (N/m)
• p-Cresol : 0.035 (N/m)
• Cyclohexane : 0.025 (N/m)
• Cyclopentane : 0.023 (N/m)
• Diethyl ether : 0.018 (N/m)
• Ethanol, Ethyl Alcohol, Pure Alcohol, Grain Alcohol, Drinking Alcohol : 0.0221 (N/m)
• Ethyl acetate : 0.024 (N/m)
• Ethyl benzoate : 0.035 (N/m)
• Ethyl bromide : 0.025 (N/m)
• Ethyl mercaptan : 0.024 (N/m)
• Ethylene glycol : 0.0477 (N/m)
• Formamide : 0.057 (N/m)
• n-Heptane : 0.020 (N/m)
• n-Hexane : 0.018 (N/m)
• Glycerol : 0.064 (N/m)
• Isobutyric acid : 0.025 (N/m)
• Isopropanol, 2-propanol, Isopropyl Alcohol, Rubbing Alcohol, Sec-propyl Alcohol, s-Propanol : 0.022 (N/m)
• Mercury : 0.425 (N/m)
• Methanol : 0.0227 (N/m)
• Methyl alcohol : 0.023 (N/m)
• Methyl formate : 0.025 (N/m)
• n-Octane : 0.022 (N/m)
• Propanol : 0.0237 (N/m)
• n-Propyl alcohol : 0.024 (N/m)
• n-Propyl benzene : 0.030 (N/m)
• Pyridine : 0.037 (N/m)
• Toluene : 0.0284 (N/m)
• Water at 20oC : 0.0729 (N/m)
• Water, soapy at 20oC : 0.0250 - 0.0450 (N/m)

## Related Topics

• Fluid Mechanics - The study of fluids - liquids and gases. Involves velocity, pressure, density and temperature as functions of space and time

## Related Documents

• Surface Tension of Water in contact with Air - Surface tension of water in contact with air for temperatures ranging 0 to 100oC (32 to 212oF) - in imperial units (BG units) and SI units
• Capillarity - Capillarity - or capillary action - is the ability of a narrow tube to draw a liquid upwards against the force of gravity
• Weber Number - Introduction to the Weber Number

## Tag Search

• en: surface tension water mercury
• es: superficie de mercurio agua tensiĆ³n
• de: entspanntem Wasser Quecksilber

## Search the Engineering ToolBox

- "the most efficient way to navigate!"

## Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - Online 3D modeling!

Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your SketchUp model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension/Plugin - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro . Add the Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp from the Sketchup Extension Warehouse!

Translate the Engineering ToolBox!