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# Heating Water by Injecting Steam

For some applications a direct heating of water by injecting steam may be convenient. A direct heating system is very simple since it don't require heat exchangers. Fouling of surfaces, which may be a major problem in certain processes, is also avoided.

The required steam flow rate in an steam injection process can be calculated as

ms = P / (hg - (t cp))                                  (1)

where

ms = steam flow rate (kg/s)

P = heat transfer rate or power from the steam (kW)

hg = specific total enthalpy of the steam before the control valve (kJ/kg)

t = final temperature of the water after the heating (oC)

cp = specific heat water (kJ/kg)

The specific heat of evaporated steam is related to zero degrees Celsius.

### Example - Heating a Water Volume by Injecting Steam

100 liter (kg) of water is heated from 20 oC to 80 oC in 5 minutes (300 s). The specific heat of water is 4.2 kJ/kgoC and the power required to heat the water can be calculated as

P = (100 kg) (4.2 kJ/kgoC) ((80 oC) - (20 oC)) / (300 s)

= 84 kW

The absolute steam pressure is 220 kPa and the total enthalpy of the steam is 2711 kJ/kg. The required steam flow rate can be calculated as

ms = (84 kW) / ((2711 kJ/kg) - ((80 oC) (4.2 kJ/kgoC)))

= 0.035 kg/s

= 127 kg/h

The total steam consumption for the heating process can be calculated as

q = (0.035 kg/s) (300 s)

= 10.5 kg

## Related Topics

### • Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics of steam and condensate systems.

## Related Documents

### Condensation of Steam - Heat Transfer

Heat transfer when steam condensates.

### Pipes Submerged in Water - Heat Emission

Heat emision from steam or water heating pipes submerged in water - assisted (forced) or natural circulation.

### Saturated Steam - Properties - Imperial Units

Steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge pressures and temperatures.

### Saturated Steam - Properties for Pressure in Bar

Saturated Steam Table with properties like boiling point, specific volume, density, specific enthalpy, specific heat and latent heat of vaporization.

### Steam and Vapor Enthalpy

Vapor and steam enthalpy, specific enthalpy of saturated liquid, saturated vapor and superheated vapor.

### Steam Heating Processes - Load Calculating

Calculating the amount of steam in non-flow batch and continuous flow heating processes.

### Steam Heating Systems - Design

An introduction to the basic design of steam heating systems.

### Water - Thermophysical Properties

Thermal properties of water at different temperatures like density, freezing temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of melting, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more.

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