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# Heating Water by Injecting Steam

## Water can be heated by injecting steam.

For some applications a direct heating of the water by injecting steam may be convenient. A direct heating system is very simple since it don't require any heat exchangers. Fouling of surfaces, which may be a major problem in certain processes, are avoided.

The required steam flow rate in an steam injection process can be calculated as

ms = P / (hg - (t cp))                                  (1)

where

ms = steam flow rate (kg/s)

P = heat transfer rate or power (kW)

hg = specific total enthalpy of the steam before the control valve (kJ/kg)

t = final temperature of the water after the heating (oC)

cp = specific heat water (kJ/kg)

### Example - Heating a Water Volume by Injecting Steam

100 liter (kg) of water is heated from 20 oC to 80 oC in 5 minutes (300 s). The specific heat of water is 4.2 kJ/kgoC and the power required can be calculated as

P = (100 kg) (4.2 kJ/kgoC) ((80 oC) - (20 oC)) / (300 s)

= 84 kW

The absolute steam pressure is 220 kPa and the total enthalpy of the steam is 2711 kJ/kg. The required steam flow rate can be calculated as

ms = (84 kW) / ((2711 kJ/kg) - ((80 oC) (4.2 kJ/kgoC)))

= 0.035 kg/s

= 127 kg/h

The total steam consumption for the heating process can be calculated as

q = (0.035 kg/s) (300 s)

= 10.5 kg

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Temperature

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oF

Length

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naut miles

Area

m2
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Volume

m3
liters
in3
ft3
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Weight

kgf
N
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Velocity

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knots

Pressure

Pa (N/m2)
bar
mm H2O
kg/cm2
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Flow

m3/s
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US gpm
cfm

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