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Water - Density, Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficients

Definitions, online calculator and figures and tables with water properties like density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient of liquid water at temperatures ranging 0 to 360°C (32 to 680°F).

Density is the ratio of the mass to the volume of a substance:

ρ = m/V                                          [1]

where
ρ = density, units typically [g/cm3] or [lb/ft3]
m = mass, units typically [g] or [lb]
V = volume, units typically [cm3] or [ft3]

Pure water has its highest density 1000 kg/m3 or 1.940 slug/ft3 at temperature 4°C (=39.2°F).

Specific weight is the ratio of the weight to the volume of a substance:

γ   = (m * g)/V   = ρ * g                                     [2]

where
γ = specific weight, units typically [N/m3] or [lbf/ft3]
m = mass, units typically [g] or [lb]
g = acceleration due to gravity, units typically [m/s2] and value on Earth usually given as 9.80665 m/s2 or 32.17405 ft/s2
V = volume, units typically [cm3] or [ft3]
ρ = density, units typically [g/cm3] or [lb/ft3]

Example 1:  Specific weight of water
In the SI system, specific weight of water at 4°C will be:

γ = 1000 [kg/m3] * 9.807 [m/s2] = 9807 [kg/(m2 s2)] = 9807 [N/m3] = 9.807 [kN/m3]

In the Imperial system the mass unit is the slug [sl], and is derived from the pound-force by defining it as the mass that will accelerate at 1 foot per square second when a 1 pound-force acts upon it:

1 [lbf] = 1 [sl] * 1 [ft/s2]   and    1 [sl] = 1 [lbf]/1 [ft/s2]

The density of water is 1.940 sl/ft3 at 39 °F (4 °C), and the specific weight in Imperial units is

γ = 1.940 [sl/ft3] * 32.174 [ft/s2] = 1.940 [lbf]/([ft/s2]*[ft3]) * 32.174 [ft/s2] = 62.4 [lbf/ft3]

See more about the difference between mass and weight

Online Water density Calculator

The calculator below can be used to calculate the liquid water density at given temperatures.
The output density is given as g/cm3, kg/m3, lb/ft3, lb/gal(US liq) and sl/ft3.

Note! Temperature must be within the ranges 0-370 °C, 32-700 °F, 273-645 K and 492-1160 °R to get valid values.

Temperature

Choose the actual unit of temperature:

°C °F K °R

The density of water depends on temperature and pressure as shown below:

See Water and Heavy Water  for thermodynamic properties at standard condtions.
See also other properties of Water at varying temperature and pressure: Boiling points at high pressure, Boiling points at vacuum pressure, Dynamic and kinematic viscosity, Enthalpy and entropy, Heat of vaporization, Ionization Constant, pKw, of normal and heavy water, Melting points at high pressure, Prandtl numberProperties at Gas-Liquid Equilibrium Conditions, Saturation pressure, Specific gravity, Specific heat (heat capacity), Specific volume, Thermal conductivity, Thermal diffusivity and Vapour pressure at gas-liquid equilibrium.
For other substances, see density and specific weight of acetone, air, ammonia, argon, benzene, butanecarbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ethane, ethanol, ethylene, helium, hydrogen, methane, methanol, nitrogen, oxygen, pentane, propane and  toluene.
Density of crude oil, Density of fuel oils, Density of lubricating oil and Density of jet fuel as function of temperature.

As shown in the figures, the change in density is not linear with temperature - this means that the volumetric expansion coefficient for water is not constant over the temperature range.

Water density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient at temperatures given in degree Celcius:

For full table with Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient - rotate the screen!

 Temperature Density    (0-100°C at 1 atm, >100 °C at saturation pressure) Specific weight Thermal expansion coefficient [°C] [g/cm3] [kg/m3] [sl/ft3] [lbm/ft3] [lbm/gal(US liq)] [kN/m3] [lbf/ft3] [*10- 4 K-1] 0.1 0.9998495 999.85 1.9400 62.4186 8.3441 9.8052 62.419 -0.68 1 0.9999017 999.90 1.9401 62.4218 8.3446 9.8057 62.422 -0.50 4 0.9999749 999.97 1.9403 62.4264 8.3452 9.8064 62.426 0.003 10 0.9997000 999.70 1.9397 62.4094 8.3429 9.8037 62.409 0.88 15 0.9991026 999.10 1.9386 62.3719 8.3379 9.7978 62.372 1.51 20 0.9982067 998.21 1.9368 62.3160 8.3304 9.7891 62.316 2.07 25 0.9970470 997.05 1.9346 62.2436 8.3208 9.7777 62.244 2.57 30 0.9956488 995.65 1.9319 62.1563 8.3091 9.7640 62.156 3.03 35 0.9940326 994.03 1.9287 62.0554 8.2956 9.7481 62.055 3.45 40 0.9922152 992.22 1.9252 61.9420 8.2804 9.7303 61.942 3.84 45 0.99021 990.21 1.9213 61.8168 8.2637 9.7106 61.817 4.20 50 0.98804 988.04 1.9171 61.6813 8.2456 9.6894 61.681 4.54 55 0.98569 985.69 1.9126 61.5346 8.2260 9.6663 61.535 4.86 60 0.98320 983.20 1.9077 61.3792 8.2052 9.6419 61.379 5.16 65 0.98055 980.55 1.9026 61.2137 8.1831 9.6159 61.214 5.44 70 0.97776 977.76 1.8972 61.0396 8.1598 9.5886 61.040 5.71 75 0.97484 974.84 1.8915 60.8573 8.1354 9.5599 60.857 5.97 80 0.97179 971.79 1.8856 60.6669 8.1100 9.5300 60.667 6.21 85 0.96861 968.61 1.8794 60.4683 8.0834 9.4988 60.468 6.44 90 0.96531 965.31 1.8730 60.2623 8.0559 9.4665 60.262 6.66 95 0.96189 961.89 1.8664 60.0488 8.0274 9.4329 60.049 6.87 100 0.95835 958.35 1.8595 59.8278 7.9978 9.3982 59.828 7.03 110 0.95095 950.95 1.8451 59.3659 7.9361 9.3256 59.366 8.01 120 0.94311 943.11 1.8299 58.8764 7.8706 9.2487 58.876 8.60 140 0.92613 926.13 1.7970 57.8164 7.7289 9.0822 57.816 9.75 160 0.90745 907.45 1.7607 56.6503 7.5730 8.8990 56.650 11.0 180 0.88700 887.00 1.7211 55.3736 7.4024 8.6985 55.374 12.3 200 0.86466 864.66 1.6777 53.9790 7.2159 8.4794 53.979 13.9 220 0.84022 840.22 1.6303 52.4532 7.0120 8.2397 52.453 16.0 240 0.81337 813.37 1.5782 50.7770 6.7879 7.9764 50.777 18.6 260 0.78363 783.63 1.5205 48.9204 6.5397 7.6848 48.920 22.1 280 0.75028 750.28 1.4558 46.8385 6.2614 7.3577 46.838 300 0.71214 712.14 1.3818 44.4574 5.9431 6.9837 44.457 320 0.66709 667.09 1.2944 41.6451 5.5671 6.5419 41.645 340 0.61067 610.67 1.1849 38.1229 5.0963 5.9886 38.123 360 0.52759 527.59 1.0237 32.9364 4.4030 5.1739 32.936 373.946 0.3220 322.0 0.625 20.102 2.6872 3.1577 20.102

Water density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient at temperatures given in degree Fahrenheit:

For full table with Specific Weight and Thermal Expansion Coefficient - rotate the screen!

 Temperature Density    (0-212°F at 1 atm, >212 °F at saturation pressure) Specific weight Thermal expansion coefficient [°F] [lbm/ft3] [sl/ft3] [lbm/gal(US liq)] [g/cm3] [kg/m3] [lbf/ft3] [kN/m3] [*10- 4 K-1] 32.2 62.42 1.9400 8.3441 0.99985 999.9 62.42 9.805 -0.68 34 62.42 1.9402 8.3448 0.99993 999.9 62.42 9.806 -0.50 39.2 62.43 1.9403 8.3452 0.99997 1000.0 62.43 9.806 0.0031 40 62.42 1.9402 8.3450 0.99995 1000.0 62.42 9.806 0.01 50 62.41 1.9397 8.3429 0.99970 999.7 62.41 9.804 0.88 60 62.36 1.9383 8.3369 0.99898 999.0 62.36 9.797 1.59 70 62.30 1.9364 8.3283 0.99796 998.0 62.30 9.787 2.18 80 62.22 1.9338 8.3172 0.99662 996.6 62.22 9.773 2.72 90 62.11 1.9306 8.3035 0.99498 995.0 62.11 9.757 3.21 100 62.00 1.9269 8.2877 0.99308 993.1 62.00 9.739 3.66 110 61.86 1.9227 8.2697 0.99093 990.9 61.86 9.718 4.08 120 61.71 1.9181 8.2499 0.98855 988.6 61.71 9.694 4.46 130 61.55 1.9131 8.2283 0.98597 986.0 61.55 9.669 4.81 140 61.38 1.908 8.205 0.9832 983.2 61.38 9.642 5.16 150 61.19 1.902 8.180 0.9802 980.2 61.19 9.613 5.47 160 61.00 1.896 8.154 0.9771 977.1 61.00 9.582 5.71 170 60.79 1.890 8.127 0.9738 973.8 60.79 9.550 6.05 180 60.58 1.883 8.098 0.9704 970.4 60.58 9.516 6.31 190 60.35 1.876 8.068 0.9668 966.8 60.35 9.481 6.57 200 60.12 1.869 8.037 0.9630 963.0 60.12 9.444 6.79 212 59.83 1.860 7.998 0.9584 958.4 59.83 9.398 7.07 220 59.63 1.853 7.971 0.9552 955.2 59.63 9.367 240 59.10 1.837 7.900 0.9467 946.7 59.10 9.283 260 58.53 1.819 7.824 0.9375 937.5 58.53 9.194 280 57.93 1.800 7.744 0.9279 927.9 57.93 9.100 300 57.29 1.781 7.659 0.9177 917.7 57.29 8.999 350 55.59 1.728 7.431 0.8905 890.5 55.59 8.733 400 53.67 1.668 7.175 0.8598 859.8 53.67 8.432 450 51.45 1.599 6.878 0.8242 824.2 51.45 8.083 500 48.92 1.521 6.540 0.7836 783.6 48.92 7.685 550 45.95 1.428 6.142 0.7360 736.0 45.95 7.218 600 42.36 1.317 5.663 0.6786 678.6 42.36 6.655 625 40.12 1.247 5.363 0.6426 642.6 40.12 6.302 650 37.35 1.161 4.993 0.5982 598.2 37.35 5.867 675 33.79 1.050 4.517 0.5412 541.2 33.79 5.307

Water density and specific weight at 1000 psi and given temperatures:

For full table with Specific Weight - rotate the screen!

 Temperature Density (at 1000 psi or 68.1 atm) Specific weight [°C] [°F] [g/cm3] [kg/m3] [sl/ft3] [lbm/ft3] [lbm/gal(US liq)] [lbf/ft3] [kN/m3] 0.0 32 1.0031 1003.1 1.946 62.62 8.371 62.62 9.837 4.4 40 1.0031 1003.1 1.946 62.62 8.371 62.62 9.837 10.0 50 1.0031 1003.1 1.946 62.62 8.371 62.62 9.837 15.6 60 1.0024 1002.4 1.945 62.58 8.366 62.58 9.831 21.1 70 1.0012 1001.2 1.943 62.50 8.355 62.50 9.818 26.7 80 0.9999 999.9 1.940 62.42 8.344 62.42 9.805 32.2 90 0.9981 998.1 1.937 62.31 8.330 62.31 9.788 37.8 100 0.9962 996.2 1.933 62.19 8.314 62.19 9.769 43.3 110 0.9944 994.4 1.928 62.03 8.292 62.03 9.744 48.9 120 0.9912 991.2 1.923 61.88 8.272 61.88 9.721 54.4 130 0.9888 988.8 1.919 61.73 8.252 61.73 9.697 60.0 140 0.9864 986.4 1.914 61.58 8.232 61.58 9.673 65.6 150 0.9834 983.4 1.908 61.39 8.207 61.39 9.644 71.1 160 0.9803 980.3 1.902 61.20 8.181 61.20 9.614 76.7 170 0.9768 976.8 1.895 60.98 8.152 60.98 9.579 82.2 180 0.9731 973.1 1.888 60.75 8.121 60.75 9.543 87.8 190 0.9696 969.6 1.881 60.53 8.092 60.53 9.509 93.3 200 0.9661 966.1 1.874 60.31 8.062 60.31 9.474 121.1 250 0.9456 945.6 1.835 59.03 7.891 59.03 9.273 148.9 300 0.9217 921.7 1.788 57.54 7.692 57.54 9.039 176.7 350 0.8943 894.3 1.735 55.83 7.463 55.83 8.770 204.4 400 0.8636 863.6 1.676 53.91 7.207 53.91 8.469 260.0 500 0.7867 786.7 1.526 49.11 6.565 49.11 7.715 284.8 544.58 boiling point

Water density and specific weight at 10 000 psi and given temperatures:

For full table with Specific Weight - rotate the screen!

 Temperature Density (at 10 000 psi or 681 atm) Specific weight [°C] [°F] [g/cm3] [kg/m3] [sl/ft3] [lbm/ft3] [lbm/gal(US liq)] [lbf/ft3] [kN/m3] 0.0 32 1.033 1033 2.004 64.5 8.62 64.5 10.13 4.4 40 1.032 1032 2.003 64.4 8.61 64.4 10.12 10.0 50 1.031 1031 2.000 64.4 8.60 64.4 10.11 15.6 60 1.029 1029 1.997 64.3 8.59 64.3 10.09 21.1 70 1.028 1028 1.994 64.1 8.58 64.1 10.08 26.7 80 1.026 1026 1.990 64.0 8.56 64.0 10.06 32.2 90 1.024 1024 1.986 63.9 8.54 63.9 10.04 37.8 100 1.021 1021 1.982 63.8 8.52 63.8 10.02 43.3 110 1.019 1019 1.977 63.6 8.51 63.6 9.99 48.9 120 1.017 1017 1.973 63.5 8.48 63.5 9.97 54.4 130 1.014 1014 1.968 63.3 8.46 63.3 9.94 60.0 140 1.011 1011 1.962 63.1 8.44 63.1 9.92 65.6 150 1.008 1008 1.957 63.0 8.42 63.0 9.89 71.1 160 1.005 1005 1.951 62.8 8.39 62.8 9.86 76.7 170 1.002 1002 1.945 62.6 8.37 62.6 9.83 82.2 180 0.999 999 1.939 62.4 8.34 62.4 9.80 87.8 190 0.996 996 1.932 62.2 8.31 62.2 9.77 93.3 200 0.992 992 1.926 62.0 8.28 62.0 9.73 121.1 250 0.974 974 1.890 60.8 8.13 60.8 9.55 148.9 300 0.953 953 1.849 59.5 7.95 59.5 9.35 176.7 350 0.930 930 1.805 58.1 7.76 58.1 9.12 204.4 400 0.905 905 1.756 56.5 7.55 56.5 8.88 260.0 500 0.847 847 1.643 52.9 7.07 52.9 8.31 315.6 600 0.774 774 1.501 48.3 6.46 48.3 7.59

Weight per US gallon is based on 7.48 gallons per cubic foot.

• 1 gal(US liq) = 3.7854 l = 0.8327 gal(UK) = 0.8594 gal(US dry) = 0.1074 bu(US dry) = 0.4297 pk(US dry) = 4 qt(US liq) = 8pt(US liq) = 16 c(US) = 32 gi(US liq) = 128 fl oz(US) = 1024 fl dr(US) = 3.7854x10-3 m3 = 0.1337 ft3 = 4.951x10-3 yd3

To convert from density in kg/m3 to other density units - or between units - use the converting values below:

• 1 kg/m3 = 1 g/l = 0.001 kg/l = 0.000001 kg/cm3 = 0.001 g/cm3 = 0.99885 oz/ft3  = 0.0005780 oz/in3 = 0.16036 oz/gal(UK) = 0.1335 oz/gal(US liq) = 0.06243 lb/ft3 = 3.6127x10-5 lb/in3 = 1.6856 lb/yd3 = 0.010022 lb/gal(UK) = 0.008345 lb/gal(US liq) = 0.00194032 sl/ft3 = 0.0007525 ton(long)/yd3  = 0.0008428 ton(short)/yd3

Example 2:  Water Density in unit oz/in3
Water density at temperature 20oC is 998.21 kg/m3 (table above). The density in units oz/in3 can with the converting value from above be calculated to

998.21 [kg/m3] * 0.0005780 [(oz/in3)/(kg/m3)] = 0.5797  [oz/in3]

Example 3:  Mass of Hot Water
A tank with volume 10 m3 contains hot water with temperature 190°F. From the table above the density of water at 190°F is 966.8 kg/m3. The total mass of the water in the tank can be calculated

10 [m3] * 966.8 [kg/m3]  = 9668 [kg]

Related Topics

• Material Properties - Material properties of gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more.
• Densities - Densities of solids, liquids and gases. Definitions and convertion calculators.
• Steam and Condensate - Steam & condensate systems- properties, capacities, pipe sizing, systems configuration and more.
• Water Systems - Hot and cold water service systems - design properties, capacities, sizing and more.

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