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# Water - Specific Gravity vs. Temperature

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Specific Gravity (= Relative Density) - SG - is a dimensionless unit defined as the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance - at a specified temperature and pressure, and can be expressed as

SG = ρ substance / ρ reference (3)

where

SG = Specific Gravity of the substance

ρ substance = density of the fluid or substance [kg/m 3 ]

ρ reference = density of the reference [kg/m 3 ]

It is most common to use the density of water at 4 o C (39 o F) as a reference since water at this point has its highest density of 1000 kg/m 3 or 1.940 sl/ft 3 . However, also the density at 60 °F (15.6°C) or 20 °C is often used as the reference temperature, e.g. related to crude oils and petroleum products.  Water is normally also used as reference when calculating the specific gravity for solids. For gases it is air at room temperature (25°C). Pressure is nearly always 1 atm (101.325 kPa). The temperature and pressure must always be specified for both the sample and the reference.

Specific Gravity - SG -  is dimensionless and has the same value in the SI system and the Imperial English system (BG).

Specific gravity of liquid water ranging 32 - 700 o F and 0 - 370 o C is given in figures and tables below:

See Water and Heavy Water - thermodynamic properties.
See also Water Boiling points at high pressure , Boiling points at vacuum pressure , Density, specific weight and thermal expansion coefficient , Dynamic and kinematic viscosity , Enthalpy and entropy , Heat of vaporization , Ionization Constant, pK w , of normal and heavy water , Melting points at high pressure , Saturation pressure , Specific heat (heat capacity) and Specific volume for online calculatores, and similar figures and tables as shown below.

Specific gravity (SG) for water is given for four different reference temperatures (4, 15, 15.6 and 20°C).
From 0 to 100°C the pressure is 1 atm, and for temperatures >100°C, the pressure is equal to water saturation pressure .

 Temperature Pressure Density SG at reference temperature [°C] [g/cm 3] 4 °C 15 °C 15.6°C ( 60 °F ) 20 °C 0.1 1 atm 14.7 psi 101.3 kPa 0.999850 0.99987 1.00075 1.00083 1.00165 1 0.999902 0.99993 1.00080 1.00089 1.00170 4 0.999975 1.00000 1.00087 1.00096 1.00177 10 0.999703 0.99973 1.00060 1.00069 1.00150 15 0.999103 0.99913 1.00000 1.00009 1.00090 20 0.998207 0.99823 0.99910 0.99919 1.00000 25 0.997047 0.99707 0.99794 0.99803 0.99884 30 0.995649 0.99567 0.99654 0.99663 0.99744 35 0.99403 0.9941 0.9949 0.9950 0.9958 40 0.99222 0.9922 0.9931 0.9932 0.9940 45 0.99021 0.9902 0.9911 0.9912 0.9920 50 0.98804 0.9881 0.9889 0.9890 0.9898 55 0.98569 0.9857 0.9866 0.9867 0.9875 60 0.98320 0.9832 0.9841 0.9842 0.9850 65 0.98055 0.9806 0.9814 0.9815 0.9823 70 0.97776 0.9778 0.9786 0.9787 0.9795 75 0.97484 0.9749 0.9757 0.9758 0.9766 80 0.97179 0.9718 0.9727 0.9727 0.9735 85 0.96861 0.9686 0.9695 0.9696 0.9704 90 0.96531 0.9653 0.9662 0.9663 0.9670 95 0.96189 0.9619 0.9628 0.9628 0.9636 99 0.95907 0.9591 0.9599 0.9600 0.9608 99.974 0.95837 0.9584 0.9592 0.9593 0.9601 [°C] Pressure = saturation pressure [kPa] [g/cm 3 ] 4 °C 15 °C 15.6°C ( 60 °F ) 20 °C 100 101.4 0.9584 0.9584 0.9592 0.9593 0.9601 110 143.4 0.9510 0.9510 0.9518 0.9519 0.9527 120 198.9 0.9431 0.9431 0.9440 0.9440 0.9448 140 362.3 0.9261 0.9262 0.9270 0.9270 0.9278 160 620.1 0.9075 0.9075 0.9083 0.9083 0.9091 180 1003 0.8870 0.8870 0.8878 0.8879 0.8886 200 1553 0.8647 0.8647 0.8654 0.8655 0.8662 220 2318 0.8402 0.8402 0.8410 0.8410 0.8417 240 3347 0.8134 0.8134 0.8141 0.8142 0.8148 260 4694 0.7836 0.7836 0.7843 0.7844 0.7850 280 6419 0.7503 0.7503 0.7510 0.7510 0.7516 300 8588 0.7121 0.7122 0.7128 0.7128 0.7134 320 11281 0.6671 0.6671 0.6677 0.6677 0.6683 340 14600 0.6107 0.6107 0.6112 0.6113 0.6118 360 18672 0.5276 0.5276 0.5281 0.5281 0.5285 374 22043 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.323

Specific gravity (SG) for water is given for four different reference temperatures (39.2, 59, 60 and 68°F).
From 32 to 212°F the pressure is 14.7 psi, and for temperatures >212°F, the pressure is equal to water saturation pressure .

 Temperature Pressure Density SG at refence temperatures [°F] [lb m /ft 3 ] 39.2°F 59°F ( 15°C ) 60°F 68°F ( 20°C ) 32.2 14.7 psi 101.3 kPa 1 atm 62.418 0.9999 1.0007 1.0008 1.0016 34 62.422 0.9999 1.0008 1.0009 1.0017 39.2 62.426 1.0000 1.0009 1.0010 1.0018 50 62.409 0.9997 1.0006 1.0007 1.0015 60 62.366 0.9990 0.9999 1.0000 1.0008 70 62.301 0.9980 0.9989 0.9990 0.9998 80 62.215 0.9966 0.9975 0.9976 0.9984 90 62.109 0.9949 0.9958 0.9959 0.9967 100 61.993 0.9931 0.9939 0.9940 0.9948 110 61.860 0.9909 0.9918 0.9919 0.9927 120 61.712 0.9886 0.9894 0.9895 0.9903 130 61.551 0.9860 0.9868 0.9869 0.9877 140 61.379 0.9832 0.9841 0.9842 0.9850 150 61.194 0.9803 0.9811 0.9812 0.9820 160 61.000 0.9772 0.9780 0.9781 0.9789 170 60.795 0.9739 0.9747 0.9748 0.9756 180 60.579 0.9704 0.9713 0.9713 0.9721 190 60.354 0.9668 0.9677 0.9677 0.9685 200 60.121 0.9631 0.9639 0.9640 0.9648 210 59.878 0.9592 0.9600 0.9601 0.9609 211.95 59.829 0.9584 0.9592 0.9593 0.9601 [°F] Pressure = saturation pressure [psi] [lb m /ft 3 ] 39.2°F 59°F ( 15°C ) 60°F 68°F ( 20°C ) 220 17.2 59.63 0.9552 0.9560 0.9561 0.9569 240 25.0 59.10 0.9467 0.9475 0.9476 0.9484 260 35.5 58.53 0.9375 0.9384 0.9384 0.9392 280 49.3 57.93 0.9279 0.9287 0.9288 0.9296 300 67.3 57.29 0.9177 0.9185 0.9186 0.9193 350 135 55.59 0.8905 0.8913 0.8914 0.8921 400 247 53.67 0.8598 0.8606 0.8606 0.8613 450 422 51.45 0.8242 0.8250 0.8250 0.8257 500 681 48.92 0.7837 0.7843 0.7844 0.7850 550 1045 45.95 0.7360 0.7367 0.7367 0.7373 600 1542 42.36 0.6786 0.6792 0.6793 0.6798 625 1851 40.12 0.6426 0.6432 0.6433 0.6438 650 2208 37.35 0.5982 0.5988 0.5988 0.5993 675 2619 33.79 0.5412 0.5417 0.5417 0.5422 700 3092 29.07 0.4657 0.4661 0.4662 0.4666
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