Thermal Conductivity of some common Materials and Gases

Thermal conductivity of gases, insulation products, aluminum, asphalt, brass, copper, steel and other common materials

Thermal conductivity is a material property describing the ability to conduct heat. Thermal conductivity can be defined as

"the quantity of heat transmitted through a unit thickness of a material - in a direction normal to a surface of unit area - due to a unit temperature gradient under steady state conditions"

Thermal conductivity units is W/(m K) in the SI system and Btu/(hr ft °F) in the Imperial system.

Thermal conductivity for common materials and products:

Thermal Conductivity
- k -
W/(m K)
Material/SubstanceTemperature - oC
25125225
Acetals 0.23
Acetone 0.16
Acetylene (gas) 0.018
Acrylic 0.2
Air, atmosphere (gas) 0.024
Air, elevation 10000 m 0.020
Agate 10.9
Alcohol 0.17
Aluminum 205 215 250
Aluminum Brass 121
Aluminum Oxide 30
Ammonia (gas) 0.022
Antimony 18.5
Apple (85.6% moisture) 0.39
Argon (gas) 0.016
Asbestos-cement board 0.744
Asbestos-cement sheets 0.166
Asbestos-cement 2.07
Asbestos, loosely packed 0.15
Asbestos mill board 0.14    
Asphalt 0.75
Balsa wood 0.048
Bitumen 0.17
Bitumen/felt layers 0.5
Beef, lean (78.9 % moisture) 0.43 - 0.48
Benzene 0.16
Beryllium 218
Bismuth 8.1
Bitumen 0.17
Blast furnace gas (gas) 0.02
Boiler scale 1.2 - 3.5
Brass 109
Breeze block 0.10 - 0.20
Brick dense 1.31
Brick, fire 0.47
Brick, insulating 0.15
Brickwork, common (Building Brick) 0.6 -1.0
Brickwork, dense 1.6
Bromine (gas) 0.004
Bronze 110
Brown iron ore 0.58
Butter (15% moisture content) 0.20
Cadmium 92.1
Calcium silicate 0.05
Carbon 1.7
Carbon dioxide (gas) 0.0146    
Carbon monoxide 0.0232
Cast iron 58
Cellulose, cotton, wood pulp and regenerated 0.23

Cellulose acetate, molded, sheet

0.17 - 0.33
Cellulose nitrate, celluloid 0.12 - 0.21
Cement, portland 0.29
Cement, mortar 1.73
Chalk 0. 09    
Charcoal 0.084
Chlorinated poly-ether 0.13
Chlorine (gas) 0.0081
Chrome Nickel Steel (18% Cr, 8 % Ni) 16.3    
Chromium 94
Chrom-oxide 0.42
Clay, dry to moist 0.15 - 1.8    
Clay, saturated 0.6 - 2.5    
Coal 0.2
Cobalt 69
Cod (83% moisture content) 0.54
Coke 0.184
Concrete, lightweight 0.1 - 0.3
Concrete, medium 0.4 - 0.7
Concrete, dense 1.0 - 1.8
Concrete, stone 1.7    
Constantan 23.3
Copper 401 400 398
Corian (ceramic filled) 1.06
Cork board 0.043
Cork, re-granulated 0.044
Cork 0.07
Cotton 0.04
Cotton wool 0.029
Carbon Steel 54 51 47
Cotton Wool insulation 0.029
Diamond 1000
Diatomaceous earth (Sil-o-cel) 0.06
Diatomite 0.12
Duralium 129
Earth, dry 1.5    
Ebonite 0.17
Emery 11.6
Engine Oil 0.15
Ethane (gas) 0.018
Ether 0.14
Ethylene (gas) 0.017
Epoxy 0.35
Ethylene glycol 0.25
Feathers 0.034
Felt insulation 0.04
Fiberglass 0.04
Fiber insulating board 0.048
Fiber hardboard 0.2    
Fire-clay brick 500oC 1.4
Fluorine (gas) 0.0254
Foam glass 0.045
Dichlorodifluoromethane R-12 (gas) 0.007    
Dichlorodifluoromethane R-12 (liquid) 0.09
Gasoline 0.15
Glass 1.05
Glass, Pearls, dry 0.18
Glass, Pearls, saturated 0.76
Glass, window 0.96    
Glass, wool Insulation 0.04
Glycerol 0.28
Gold 310 312 310
Granite 1.7 - 4.0
Graphite 168
Gravel 0.7
Ground or soil, very moist area 1.4
Ground or soil, moist area 1.0
Ground or soil, dry area 0.5
Ground or soil, very dry area 0.33
Gypsum board 0.17
Hairfelt 0.05    
Hardboard high density 0.15
Hardwoods (oak, maple..) 0.16
Helium (gas) 0.142
Honey (12.6% moisture content) 0.5
Hydrochloric acid (gas) 0.013
Hydrogen (gas) 0.168
Hydrogen sulfide (gas) 0.013
Ice (0oC, 32oF) 2.18
Ingot iron 47 - 58
Insulation materials 0.035 - 0.16
Iodine 0.44
Iridium 147
Iron 80 68 60
Iron, wrought 59
Iron, cast 55
Iron-oxide 0.58
Kapok insulation 0.034
Kerosene 0.15
Krypton (gas) 0.0088
Lead Pb 35
Leather, dry 0.14
Limestone 1.26 - 1.33
Lithium 301
Magnesia insulation (85%) 0.07
Magnesite 4.15    
Magnesium 156
Magnesium alloy 70 - 145
Marble 2.08 - 2.94
Mercury, liquid 8.3
Methane (gas) 0.030
Methanol 0.21
Mica 0.71
Milk 0.53
Mineral wool insulation materials, wool blankets .. 0.04    
Molybdenum 138
Monel 26
Neon (gas) 0.046
Neoprene 0.05
Nickel 91
Nitric oxide (gas) 0.0238
Nitrogen (gas) 0.024
Nitrous oxide (gas) 0.0151
Nylon 6, Nylon 6/6 0.25
Oil, machine lubricating SAE 50 0.15
Olive oil 0.17
Oxygen (gas) 0.024
Palladium 70.9
Paper 0.05
Paraffin Wax 0.25
Peat 0.08
Perlite, atmospheric pressure 0.031    
Perlite, vacuum 0.00137    
Phenolic cast resins 0.15
Phenol-formaldehyde moulding compounds 0.13 - 0.25
Phosphorbronze 110
Pinchbeck 159
Pitch 0.13
Pit coal 0.24
Plaster light 0.2
Plaster, metal lath 0.47
Plaster, sand 0.71
Plaster, wood lath 0.28
Plasticine 0.65 - 0.8
Plastics, foamed (insulation materials) 0.03    
Platinum 70 71 72
Plutonium 6.7
Plywood 0.13
Polycarbonate 0.19
Polyester 0.05
Polyethylene low density, PEL 0.33
Polyethylene high density, PEH 0.42 - 0.51
Polyisoprene natural rubber 0.13
Polyisoprene hard rubber 0.16
Polymethylmethacrylate 0.17 - 0.25
Polypropylene, PP 0.1 - 0.22    
Polystyrene, expanded styrofoam 0.03
Polystyrol 0.043
Polyurethane foam 0.03
Porcelain 1.5
Potassium 1
Potato, raw flesh 0.55
Propane (gas) 0.015
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 0.25
Polyvinylchloride, PVC 0.19
Pyrex glass 1.005
Quartz mineral 3
Radon (gas) 0.0033
Red metal 128
Rhenium 71
Rhodium 88
Rock, solid 2 - 7    
Rock, porous volcanic (Tuff) 0.5 - 2.5    
Rock Wool insulation 0.045
Rosin 0.32
Rubber, cellular 0.045
Rubber, natural 0.13
Rubidium 58
Salmon (73% moisture content) 0.50
Sand, dry 0.15 - 0.25
Sand, moist 0.25 - 2    
Sand, saturated 2 - 4
Sandstone 1.7    
Sawdust 0.08
Selenium 0.2
Sheep wool 0.039
Silica aerogel 0.02    
Silicon cast resin 0.15 - 0.32
Silicon carbide 15.2
Silicon oil 0.1
Silver 429
Slag wool 0.042
Slate 2.01
Snow (temp < 0oC) 0.05 - 0.25
Sodium 135 (solid) 86 (liquid)
Softwoods (fir, pine ..) 0.12
Soil, clay 1.1
Soil, with organic matter 0.15 - 2    
Soil, saturated 0.6 - 4    

Soot

0.07

Steam, saturated

0.0184
Steam, low pressure 0.0188
Steatite 2
Steel, Carbon 1% 43
Stainless Steel 16 17 19
Straw slab insulation, compressed 0.09
Styrofoam 0.033
Sulfur dioxide (gas) 0.0086
Sulfur, crystal 0.2
Sugars 0.087 - 0.22
Tantalum 54
Tar 0.19
Tellurium 4.9
Thorium 38
Timber, alder 0.17
Timber, ash 0.16
Timber, birch 0.14
Timber, larch 0.12
Timber, maple 0.16
Timber, oak 0.17
Timber, pitchpine 0.14
Timber, pockwood 0.19
Timber, red beech 0.14
Timber, red pine 0.15
Timber, white pine 0.15
Timber, walnut 0.15
Tin Sn 67
Titanium 22
Tungsten 174
Uranium 27.6
Urethane foam 0.021    
Vacuum 0
Vermiculite granules 0.065    
Vinyl ester 0.25
Water 0.58
Water, vapor (steam) 0.016
Wax 0.084
Wheat flour 0.45
White metal 35 - 70
Wood across the grain, white pine 0.12
Wood across the grain, balsa 0.055
Wood across the grain, yellow pine, timber 0.147
Wood, oak 0.17    
Wool, felt 0.07
Wood wool, slab 0.1 - 0.15
Xenon (gas) 0.0051
Zinc Zn 116

Example - Conductive Heat Transfer through an Aluminum Pot versus a Stainless Steel Pot

The conductive heat transfer through a pot wall can be calculated as

q / A = k dT / s

where 

q / A = heat transfer per unit area (W/m2)

k = thermal conductivity  (W/mK)

dT = temperature difference (oC)

s = wall thickness (m)

Conductive Heat Transfer through an Aluminum Pot Wall with thickness 2 mm - temperature difference 80oC

Thermal conductivity for aluminum is 215 W/(m K) (from the table above). Conductive heat transfer per unit area can be calculated as

 q / A = (215 W/(m K)) (80 oC)  /  (2 10-3 m)  

          = 8600000 (W/m2)

          = 8600 (kW/m2)

Conductive Heat Transfer through a Stainless Steel Pot Wall with thickness 2 mm - temperature difference 80oC

Thermal conductivity for stainless steel is 17 W/(m K) (from the table above). Conductive heat transfer per unit area can be calculated as

q / A = (17 W/(m K)) (80 oC)  / (2 10-3 m)  

          = 680000 (W/m2)

          = 680 (kW/m2)

Related Topics

  • Insulation - Heat transfer and heat loss from buildings and technical applications - heat transfer coefficients and insulation methods and to reduce energy consumption
  • Thermodynamics - Effects of work, heat and energy on systems
  • Material Properties - Material properties for gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more

Related Documents

Tag Search

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  • es: los gases de conductividad térmica
  • de: Wärmeleitfähigkeit Gasen

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