Thermal Conductivity of some common Materials and Gases

Thermal conductivity of some common materials and gases - insulation, aluminum, asphalt, brass, copper, steel and many more ..

Thermal conductivity is the quantity of heat transmitted through a unit thickness in a direction normal to a surface of unit area, due to a unit temperature gradient under steady state conditions.

Thermal conductivity of some common materials and products are indicated in the table below.

  • 1 W/(m.K) = 1 W/(m.oC) = 0.85984 kcal/(hr.m.oC) = 0.5779 Btu/(ft.hr.oF)
Thermal Conductivity - k - W/(m.K)
Material/SubstanceTemperature - oC
25125225
Acetals 0.23
Acetone 0.16
Acetylene (gas) 0.018
Acrylic 0.2
Air, athmosphere (gas) 0.024
Air, elevation 10000 m 0.020
Alcohol 0.17
Aluminum 205 215 250
Aluminium Brass 121
Aluminum Oxide 30
Ammonia (gas) 0.022
Antimony 18.5
Apple (85.6% moisture) 0.39
Argon (gas) 0.016
Asbestos-cement board 0.744
Asbestos-cement sheets 0.166
Asbestos-cement 2.07
Asbestos, loosely packed 0.15
Asbestos mill board 0.14    
Asphalt 0.75
Balsa wood 0.048
Bitumen 0.17
Bitumen/felt layers 0.5
Beef, lean (78.9 % moisture) 0.43 - 0.48
Benzene 0.16
Beryllium 218
Bitumen 0.17
Blast furnace gas (gas) 0.02
Brass 109
Breeze block 0.10 - 0.20
Brick dense 1.31
Brick, insulating 0.15
Brickwork, common 0.6 -1.0
Brickwork, dense 1.6
Bromine (gas) 0.004
Bronze 110
Butter (15% moisture content) 0.20
Cadmium 92
Calcium silicate 0.05
Carbon 1.7
Carbon dioxide (gas) 0.0146    
Carbon monoxide 0.0232
Cellulose, cotton, wood pulp and regenerated 0.23

Cellulose acetate, moulded, sheet

0.17 - 0.33
Cellulose nitrate, celluloid 0.12 - 0.21
Cement, portland 0.29
Cement, mortar 1.73
Chalk 0. 09    
Charcoal 0.2
Chlorinated polyether 0.13
Chlorine (gas) 0.0081
Chrome Nickel Steel (18% Cr, 8 % Ni) 16.3    
Chromium 94
Clay, dry to moist 0.15 - 1.8    
Clay, saturated 0.6 - 2.5    
Coal 0.2
Cobalt 69
Cod (83% moisture content) 0.54
Concrete, lightweight 0.1 - 0.3
Concrete, medium 0.4 - 0.7
Concrete, dense 1.0 - 1.8
Concrete, stone 1.7    
Constantan 22
Copper 401 400 398
Corian (ceramic filled) 1.06
Cork board 0.043
Cork, regranulated 0.044
Cork 0.07
Cotton 0.04
Cotton wool 0.029
Carbon Steel 54 51 47
Cotton Wool insulation 0.029
Diamond 1000
Diatomaceous earth (Sil-o-cel) 0.06
Diatomite 0.12
Earth, dry 1.5    
Engine Oil 0.15
Ethane (gas) 0.018
Ether 0.14
Ethylene (gas) 0.017
Epoxy 0.35
Ethylene glycol 0.25
Feathers 0.034
Felt insulation 0.04
Fiberglass 0.04
Fibre insulating board 0.048
Fibre hardboard 0.2    
Fireclay brick 500oC 1.4
Fluorine (gas) 0.0254
Foam glass 0.045
Freon R-12 (gas) 0.007    
Freon R-12 (liquid) 0.09
Gasoline 0.15
Glass 1.05
Glass, Pearls, dry 0.18
Glass, Pearls, saturated 0.76
Glass, window 0.96    
Glass, wool Insulation 0.04
Glycerol 0.28
Gold 310 312 310
Granite 1.7 - 4.0
Gravel 0.7
Ground or soil, very moist area 1.4
Ground or soil, moist area 1.0
Ground or soil, dry area 0.5
Ground or soil, very dry area 0.33
Gypsum board 0.17
Hairfelt 0.05    
Hardboard high density 0.15
Hardwoods (oak, maple..) 0.16
Helium (gas) 0.142
Honey (12.6% moisture content) 0.5
Hydrochlor acid (gas) 0.013
Hydrogen (gas) 0.168
Hydrogen sulfide (gas) 0.013
Ice (0oC, 32oF) 2.18
Insulation materials 0.035 - 0.16
Iridium 147
Iron 80 68 60
Iron, wrought 59
Iron, cast 55
Kapok insulation 0.034
Kerosene 0.15
Krypton (gas) 0.0088
Lead Pb 35
Leather, dry 0.14
Limestone 1.26 - 1.33
Magnesia insulation (85%) 0.07
Magnesite 4.15    
Magnesium 156
Marble 2.08 - 2.94
Mercury 8.3
Methane (gas) 0.030
Methanol 0.21
Mica 0.71
Milk 0.53
Mineral wool insulation materials, wool blankets .. 0.04    
Molybdenum 138
Monel 26
Neon (gas) 0.046
Neoprene 0.05
Nickel 91
Nitric oxide (gas) 0.0238
Nitrogen (gas) 0.024
Nitrous oxide (gas) 0.0151
Nylon 6, Nylon 6/6 0.25
Oil, machine lubricating SAE 50 0.15
Olive oil 0.17
Oxygen (gas) 0.024
Paper 0.05
Paraffin Wax 0.25
Perlite, atmospheric pressure 0.031    
Perlite, vacuum 0.00137    
Phenolic cast resins 0.15
Phenol-formaldehyde moulding compounds 0.13 - 0.25
Plaster light 0.2
Plaster, metal lath 0.47
Plaster, sand 0.71
Plaster, wood lath 0.28
Plasticine 0.65 - 0.8
Plastics, foamed (insulation materials) 0.03    
Platinum 70 71 72
Plutonium 6.7
Plywood 0.13
Polycarbonates 0.19
Polyester 0.05
Polyethylene low density, PEL 0.33
Polyethylene high density, PEH 0.42 - 0.51
Polyisoprene natural rubber 0.13
Polyisoprene hard rubber 0.16
Polymethylmethacrylate 0.17 - 0.25
Polypropylene, PP 0.1 - 0.22    
Polystyrene, expanded styrofoam 0.03
Polystyrol 0.043
Polyurethane foam 0.03
Porcelain 1.5
Potato, raw flesh 0.55
Propane (gas) 0.015
Polytetrafluoroethylene, Teflon, PTFE 0.25
Polyvinylchloride, PVC 0.19
Pyrex glass 1.005
Quartz mineral 3
Radon (gas) 0.0033
Rock, solid 2 - 7    
Rock, porous volcanic (Tuff) 0.5 - 2.5    
Rock Wool insulation 0.045
Rubber, celluar 0.045
Rubber, natural 0.13
Salmon (73% moisture content) 0.50
Sand, dry 0.15 - 0.25
Sand, moist 0.25 - 2    
Sand, saturated 2 - 4
Sandstone 1.7    
Sawdust 0.08
Sheeps wool 0.039
Silica aerogel 0.02    
Silicone cast resin 0.15 - 0.32
Silicone oil 0.1
Silver 429
Slag wool 0.042
Slate 2.01
Snow (temp < 0oC) 0.05 - 0.25
Sodium 84
Softwoods (fir, pine ..) 0.12
Soil, clay 1.1
Soil, with organic matter 0.15 - 2    
Soil, saturated 0.6 - 4    
Steel, Carbon 1% 43
Stainless Steel 16 17 19
Straw slab insulation, compressed 0.09
Styrofoam 0.033
Sulfur dioxide (gas) 0.0086
Sugars 0.087 - 0.22
Teflon 0.25
Timber 0.14
Tin Sn 67
Titanium 22
Tungsten 174
Uranium 27.6
Urethane foam 0.021    
Vacuum 0
Vermiculite granules 0.065    
Vinyl ester 0.25
Water 0.58
Water, vapor (steam) 0.016
Wheat flour 0.45
Wood across the grain, white pine 0.12
Wood across the grain, balsa 0.055
Wood across the grain, yellow pine, timber 0.147
Wood, oak 0.17    
Wool, felt 0.07
Wood wool, slab 0.1 - 0.15
Xenon (gas) 0.0051
Zinc Zn 116
  • 1 W/(m.K) = 1 W/(m.oC) = 0.85984 kcal/(h.m.oC) = 0.5779 Btu/(ft.h.oF) = 0.048 Btu/(in.h.oF)

Example - Conductive Heat Transfer through a Aluminum versus Stainless Steel Pot

The conductive heat transfer through a pot wall can be calculated as

q / A = k dT / s

where 

q / A = heat transfer per unit area (W/m2)

k = thermal conductivity  (W/mK)

dT = temperature difference (oC)

s = wall thickness (m)

Conductive Heat Transfer through Aluminum Pot Wall with thickness 2 mm and temperature difference 200oC

 q / A = (250 W/mK) (200 oC)  /  (2 10-3 m)  

          = 25000 (kW/m2)

Conductive Heat Transfer through Stainless Steel Pot Wall with thickness 2 mm and temperature difference 200oC

q / A = (16 W/mK) (200 oC)  / (2 10-3(m)  

          = 1600 (kW/m2)

Related Topics

  • Insulation - Heat transfer and heat loss from buildings and technical applications - insulation methods and coefficients to reduce energy consumption
  • Thermodynamics - The effects of work, heat and energy on a system
  • Material Properties - Material properties - density, heat capacity, viscosity and more - for gases, fluids and solids

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