HVAC Systems • Heating
Heating systems - capacity and design of boilers, pipelines, heat exchangers, expansion systems and more.
Air Heating Systems
Air heating buildings - heat supply vs. air flow and temperature.
ASME - International Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
The International Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code safety rules governing design, fabrication, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels, and nuclear power plant components during construction.
Boilers - Classification
Classification of boilers according the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
Building Elements - Heat Loss vs. Thermal Resistivity
Thermal resistance in building elements like walls, floors and roofs above and below the ground.
Chimneys and Fireplace Sizing
Chimneys and fireplaces for stoves burning wood or coal as fuel.
Closed Expansion Tanks - Volume vs. Temperature and Pressure
Sizing of low temperature closed expansion tanks.
Coal - Classification
Classification of coal based on volatile matter and cooking power of clean material.
Convective Air Flow - Single Heat Source
Calculate the vertical air flow and air velocity generated by a single heat source.
Convective Air Flows from Typical Heat Sources
Convective air flows from typical heat sources like people, computers, radiators and more.
Convective Heat Transmission - Air Velocity and Air Flow Volume
Hot or cold vertical surfaces generates vertical air flows - calculate air velocity and volume flow.
Copper Tubes - Heat Carrying Capacities
Hot water heat carrying capacities in copper tubes type L.
Design of Hot Water Heating Systems
Calculate gravity and forced circulating hot water heating systems.
Diaphragm Expansion Tanks
Low temperature diaphragm expansion tank sizing - calculate tank volume and acceptance volume.
District Heating - Temperature vs. Heat Capacity
Water temperature and heating capacity.
Physical properties of Dowtherm A.
Equivalent Length Method - Minor Pressure Loss in Piping Systems
Calculate minor pressure loss in piping systems with the Equivalent Pipe Length Method.
Fittings and Minor Pressure Loss
Minor pressure loss with fittings in piping heating systems.
Fluid Heat Transfer Coefficients in Heat Exchanger Surface Combinations
Average overall heat transmission coefficients for fluid and surface combinations like Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more.
Food and Foodstuff - Specific Heat
Specific heat of common food and foodstuff like apples, bass, beef, pork and many more.
Gas Oil - Classification
Classification of gas oil based on BS 2869 - Specification for fuel oils for agricultural, domestic and industrial engines and boilers.
Gravity Heating System
The density difference between hot and cold water is the circulating force in a self circulating gravity heating system.
Greenhouse Pipes - Heat Emission
Heat emission from steam and hot water pipes typical used in greenhouse installations.
Greenhouses - Heat Required to Maintaining Temperature
Heat required to maintain a greenhouse temperature.
Greenhouses - Typical Temperatures
Typical greenhouse temperatures.
Heat Emission from Radiators and Heating Panels
The heat emission from a radiator or a heating panel depends on the temperature difference between the radiator and the surrounding air.
Heat Loss from Buildings
Overall heat transfer loss from buildings - transmission, ventilation and infiltration.
Heat Loss from Oil Filled Tanks and Pipe Lines
Heat loss from insulated and non insulated sheltered and exposed oil tanks and pipes.
Heat Loss from Open Water Tanks
Due to evaporation the heat loss from an open water tank like a swimming pool may be considerable.
Heat Pumps - Performance and Efficiency Ratings
Performance and efficiency rating of heat pumps.
Heat, Work and Energy
Heat vs. work vs. energy.
Heating System Flow Rates
Calculate flow rates in heating systems.
Heating Systems - Safety Valves Size vs. Boiler Power
Safety valves with boilers ranging 275 to 1500 kW.
Hot Water Boiler - Circulation Rates
Boiler power and water flow - Imperial and SI-units.
Hot Water Expansion Tanks - Sizing
Required hot water expansion volume in open, closed and diaphragm tanks.
Hot Water Heating System - Design Procedure
Hot water heating system design procedure with heat loss, boiler rating, heater units and more.
Hot Water Heating System Temperatures vs. Outdoor Temperatures
Hot water heating temperatures adapts to outdoor temperatures.
Hot Water Heating Systems - Flow Temperatures vs. Outside Temperatures
Seasonal effects on hot-water heating systems flow temperatures.
Hot Water Heating Systems - Online Design Application
Free online design tool for designing hot water heating systems - metric units.
Hot Water Heating Systems - Online Design Application, Imperial Units
Online design tool for hot water heating systems.
Hot Water Heating Systems - Pressure Loss in Steel Pipes
Pressure loss nomogram for hot water steel pipes.
Hot Water Systems - Equivalent Length vs. Fittings Resistance
Equivalent length of fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves in hot water heating systems - equivalent length in feet and meter.
Hot-Water Heating Systems - Classification
Hot-water heating systems can be classified by temperature and pressure.
HVAC Diagram - Online Drawing Tool
Draw HVAC diagrams online with this Google Drive drawing tool.
Indoor Design Temperatures
Recommended indoor temperatures in summer or winter.
Indoor Relative Humidity vs. Outdoor Relative Humidity and Temperature
Recommended indoor relative humidity vs. outdoor relative humidity and temperature.
Industrial Product and Production Processes - Climate Conditions
Recommended indoor temperature and humidity for common industrial products and production processes.
Infiltration - Heat Losses from Buildings
Estimated infiltration heat losses from buildings.
Lights vs. Power Installation
Lights vs. power installations in common types of buildings and rooms.
Oil Filled Tanks - Heat Loss
Heat loss from insulated and uninsulated, sheltered and exposed heated oil tanks.
Outdoor Temperatures and Relative Humidity - US Winter and Summer Conditions
Outdoor summer and winter design temperatures and relative humidity for US states and cities.
Pipes Submerged in Oil or Fat - Heat Emission
Heat emission from steam or water heating pipes submerged in oil or fat - forced and natural circulation.
Pipes Submerged in Water - Heat Emission
Heat emision from steam or water heating pipes submerged in water - assisted (forced) or natural circulation.
Radiators - Heat Emission
Calculate heat emission from column and panel radiators.
Safety Relief Valves - Capacities vs. Pressure
Maximum safety valve free air relief capacity.
Safety Valve Standards
The most common used safety valve standards in Germany, UK, USA, France, Japan, Australia and Europe.
Snow Melting Systems
Sizing snow melting systems - water and antifreeze.
Standard enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, entropy and molar heat capacity of organic substances
The standard enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, entropy and molar heat capacity are tabulated for more than hundred organic substances.
Static Pressure in a HVAC System
A minimum static pressure is required in a HVAC system to keep the water in the highest levels of the system.
Steam Radiators and Convectors - Heating Capacities
Steam radiators and steam convectors - heating capacities and temperature coefficients.
Swimming Pool Heaters
Calculate outdoor swimming pool heaters.
Transmission Heat Loss through Building Elements
Heat loss through common building elements due to transmission, R-values and U-values - imperial and SI units.
Units of Heat - BTU, Calorie and Joule
The most common units of heat BTU - British Thermal Unit, Calorie and Joule.
Volumetric (Cubic) Thermal Expansion
Volumetric temperature expansion calculator.
Windows - Inside Condensation
Water condensation on inside glass windows surfaces vs. outside temperature and inside temperature and humidity.
Wood - Combustion Heat Values
Combustion of wood and firewood heat values for species like Pine, Elm, Hickory and more.