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Hot Water Heating Systems - Flow Temperatures vs. Outside Temperatures

Seasonal effects on hot-water heating systems flow temperatures.

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Seasonal effects - outside temperature - and operating boiler temperatures in typical two-pipe forced hot water systems are indicated in the table below:

Hot water heating system - outside temperature and boiler  flow temperature

It is common to design a hot-water heating system for a temperature drop of 20 o C (36 o F ) in heating elements and radiators at what is considered as minimum outside design temperatures.

Maximum boiler flow temperature is often set to 80 o C (176 o F ) to avoid "burned dust" and accidentally injures on people when touching heaters. Outside design temperature depends on the actual location.

Hot Water Heating Systems - Flow Temperatures vs. Outside Temperatures
Minimum Outside Design Temperature
( o C)
Boiler Flow Temperature ( o C)
Outside Temperature ( o C)
-20-1001020
-20 80 66 51 37 37
-10 80 58 37 37
0 80 37 37
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