# Fluid Flow and Pressure Drops

## Pipe lines - fluid flow and pressure loss - water, sewer, steel pipes, pvc pipes, copper tubes and more

### Absolute, Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Dynamic, absolute and kinematic viscosities - convert between *CentiStokes (cSt), centipoises (cP), Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU) and degree Engler*

### Boiling Fluids - Max Suction Flow Velocity

Recommended max suction flow velocity when pumping boiling fluids

### Boiling Liquids - Max Pumping Flow Velocity

Recommended max flow velocity on the delivery (pressure) side when pumping boiling liquids

### Capacity of Sewer Pipes

Carrying capacity of sewer and wastewater pipes - *gpm and liter per second*

### Comparing Friction Loss in Steel, Copper and Plastic Pipes

Water flow and friction head loss *(ft/100 ft) * in steel, copper and PVC plastic pipes

### Comparing Secondary Coolants

Specific gravity, freezing points and viscosity for secondary coolants like calcium chloride, sodium chloride, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol

### Copper Tubes - Heat Carrying Capacities

Hot water heat carrying capacity for copper tubes type L

### Copper Tubes - Pressure Loss in Fittings and Valves Expressed as Equivalent Length of Tube

Copper tube fittings and equivalent lengths - in feets of straight tube

### Darcy-Weisbach Pressure and Major Head Loss Equation

The Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to calculate the major pressure or head loss due to friction in ducts, pipes or tubes

### Download ANSI, American National Standards Institute, Standards

ANSI is a private, not-for-profit, membership organization that acts not as a standards developer, but as a standards coordinating and approval body

### Energy Equation - Pressure Head Loss in Ducts, Tubes and Pipes

Pressure and head loss in ducts, pipes and tubes

### Equation of Continuity

The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation

### Equivalent Length Method - Calculating Minor Pressure Loss in Piping Systems

Pressure loss in piping systems by using the Equivalent Pipe Length Method

### Flow Units Converter

Convert between volume flow units - *gpm, liter/sec, cfm, m ^{3}/h* - an online flow unit calculator

### Fluid Flow Velocities in Pipes

Calculate fluid flow and pipe velocities in pipes and tubes

### Hazen-Williams Equation - calculating Head Loss in Water Pipes

Friction head loss (*ft _{H2O} per 100 ft pipe*) in water pipes can be estimated with the empirical Hazen-Williams equation

### Hoses - Water Flow and Pressure Losses

Water flow and pressure loss due to friction in hoses

### Hot Water Heating Systems - Steel Pipes Pressure Loss Nomogram

Steel pipes in hot water heating systems - pressure loss nomogram

### House Gas Pipe Capacity

Carrying capacity of house gas pipes - in imperial and metric units

### Hydraulic Diameter

Hydraulic diameter of pipes and ducts

### Light Oil Pumping Flow Velocity

Max light oil flow velocity on pump delivery side

### Light Oil Suction Flow Velocity

Recommended suction flow velocity when pumping light oils

### Lined Pipes and Pressure Drop

Pressure drop diagrams for PTFE, PP, PFA and PVDF lined pipes

### Liquids - Densities

Densities of common liquids like acetone, beer, oil, water and more

### Liquids - Specific Gravities

Specific gravity of common liquids and fluids like alcohol, oils, benzene, water and many more

### Low Pressure Gas Pipe Sizing

Apartments gas pipe service lines

### LPG Pipes and Pressure Drop

Resistance and pressure loss in liquid LPG pipes

### Mechanical Energy and Bernoulli Equation

The mechanical energy equation related to energy per unit mass, energy per unit volume and energy per unit weight involving head

### Minor or Dynamic Loss Coefficients for Pipe or Tube System Components

Minor loss coefficients for commonly used components in pipe and tube systems

### Minor Pressure Head Loss in Pipe and Duct Components - Equivalent Lengths

Minor pressure and head loss in pipes, tubes and duct systems

### Miter Saw Angle Calculator

Calculate miter saw protractor angles

### Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - imperial units

### Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing pipes for natural gas - pressures above* 5 psi (35 kPa)*

### Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Metric values

### Oil Pipes - Recommended Flow Velocities

Flow velocities in oil pipes should be kept within certain limits

### Oil Pipes and Pressure Drop

Pressure drop in oil pipes - viscosities ranging *100 - 600 Saybolt Universal Seconds*

### PE - PolyEthylene Pipes, Flow and Pressure Loss

Water flow in SDR pressure rated PE-pipes - pressure loss and velocities - Imperial and SI units

### PE, PEH or PVC Pipes - Pressure Loss Diagram

Pressure drop *(bar/100 m)* and velocy in PE, PEH or PVC pipes

### Pipes - Typical Fluid Velocities

Flow of liquids, gases and vapors - typical fluid velocities

### Pipes - Water Content - Weight and Volume

Estimate water content in pipes - weight and volume

### Plastic Pipes - Friction Head Loss

Friction head loss (ft/100 ft) in plastic pipes - PVC, PP, PE, PEH

### Pneumatic Piping - Pressure Loss

Pressure loss in pneumatic tubes - sizes ranging 5 - 36 mm

### Pneumatic Powder and Solids - Transport Systems

Pneumatic transport systems are used to move powder and other solid products

### Pneumatic Transport and Conveying - Carrying Velocities

Recommended air velocity for pneumatic transport of products like cement, coal, flour and more

### Pneumatic Transporting

An introduction to pneumatic transport of powders

### Pressfit Pipes - Pressure Loss Diagram

Pressure loss diagram for water flow in pressfit piping

### Pressfit Piping - Friction Loss

Pressfit piping with water flow and friction loss

### Pressure Gradient Diagrams

A pressure gradient diagram is a graphical presentation of the static pressure throughout a fluid flow system

### Pressure Loss in Steel Pipes Schedule 40

Water flow and pressure loss in schedule 40 steel pipes - Imperial and SI units - gallons per minute, liters per second and cubic meters per hour

### Pressure to Head - Unit Converter

Convert between pressure and head units - like *lb/in ^{2}, atm, inches mercury, bars, Pa and more ..*

### Propane Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Metric units

### Propane Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Imperial units

### Propane Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing propane gas pipe lines - for pressures above *5 psig (35 kPa)*

### PVC - Friction Loss in Fittings and Equivalent Length

Minor loss in PVC and CPVC fittings as equivalent length of straight pipe

### PVC Pipes - Friction Loss and Flow Velocities Schedule 40

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 40 - friction loss *(ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft)* and flow velocities at dimensions ranging 1/2 to 16 inches

### PVC Pipes - Friction Loss and Flow Velocities Schedule 80

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 80 - friction loss *(ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft)* and flow velocities at dimensions ranging 1/2 to 16 inches

### PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagrams

Friction loss *(psi/100 ft)* and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40

### Resistance and Fittings Equivalent Length in Hot Water Systems

Equivalent length of fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves in hot water heating systems - equivalent length in feet and meter

### Reynolds Number

Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - online calculators

### SDR - Standard Dimension Ratio - and Pipe Series - S

It is common to use the Standard Dimension Ratio - SDR - as method of rating pressure piping

### Slurry Transport - Minimum Flow Velocity

Avoid settling of solids in slurry transport systems with flow velocities above certain levels

### Steel Pipes and Maximum Water Flow Capacity

Maximum water flow capacities in steel pipes - pipe dimensions ranging *2 - 24 inches*

### Steel Pipes Friction Loss with Viscous Liquids

Friction loss in schedule 40 steel pipe with viscous liquids - viscosities ranging from water to oil

### Steel Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagram

Friction loss and velocity diagrams - in imperial *(psi/100 ft, ft/s)* and SI *(Pa/100m, m/s)* units

### Steel Pipes Schedule 80 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagrams

Water flow in steel pipes schedule 80 - pressure drop and velocity diagrams in SI and Imperial units

### Total Head Loss in Pipe or Duct Systems

Major and minor loss in pipe, tubes and duct systems

### Vacuum Pipe Lines - Pressure Drops

Vacuum pipes and pressure drops

### Viscosity Converting Chart

Convert between the viscosity units *Centiposes, milliPascal, CentiStokes and SSU*

### Viscous Fluids - Recommended Suction Flow Velocity

Recommended pump suction flow velocity for viscous fluids

### Viscous Liquids - Friction Loss

Friction loss in steel pipes - for fluids with viscosities ranging *32 - 80000 SSU*

### Viscous Liquids - Recommended Delivery Flow Velocity

Flow velocities on delivery sides of pumps in viscous systems

### Volume Flow and Friction Loss in CTS - Copper Tube Sized CPVC Tubes

Volume flow and pressure loss in CTS - Copper Tube Sized CPVC (Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride) tubes

### Water - Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity

Absolute or dynamic viscosity of water in centipoises for temperatures between *32 - 200 ^{o}F*

### Water - Suction Flow Velocity

Recommended water flow velocities on suction sides of pumps

### Water Flow - Delivery Velocity

Required maximum flow velocity in water systems - delivery side of the pump

### Water Flow and Velocity Head in Steel Pipes - Schedule 40

Velocity head used to calculate minor pressure or head loss in fluid flow systems

### Water Flow in Copper Tubes - Pressure Loss due to Fricton

Water flow and pressure loss *(psi/ft)* due to friction in copper tubes ASTM B88 Types K, L and M

### Water Flow in Tubes - Reynolds Number

Clean cold waterflow in pipes and the Reynolds number

### Williams Hazens Pressure Drop Equation

The Hazen-Williams equation can be used to calculate the pressure drop (psi) or friction loss in pipes or tubes