Flow rate and temperature are the primary factors to be determined in the hydraulic and thermal design of water-heating and piping systems.
The table below indicates hot water consumption per occupant or person in typical buildings:
|Type of building||Consumption per occupant||Peak demand per occupant||Storage per occupant|
|Factories (no process)||22 - 45||5 - 10||9||2||5||1|
|Hotels||90 - 160||20 - 35||45||10||30||7|
|Houses and flats||90 - 160||20 - 35||45||10||30||7|
Hot and cold water service systems - design properties, capacities, sizing and more.
Domestic Hot-Water sizing equations - heating capacity, recovery rate and power supply.
Design procedures for domestic hot water service systems.
Lime deposited vs. temperature and water consumption.
Recommended dimensions hot and cold water pipes.
Hot water can be circulated through a return pipe if it's instantly required at the fixtures.
Content of hot water in some common used fixtures - basins, sinks and baths.
Dimensions and capacities of hot-water storage tanks.
Design hot water consumption of fixtures - basins, showers, sinks and baths.
Hot water consumption of some common equipment as basins, sinks, baths and showers.
Activity and average water consumption
Converting WSFU - Water Supply Fixture Units - to GPM.
WSFU is used to calculate water supply service systems.
Free online tool for designing water supply systems in buildings.