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# High and Low Heat Values

## The gross (high) and net (low) heating values.

The heat value is

• the amount of heat produced by combustion a unit quantity of a fuel

We differentiate between gross and net heating values:

### Gross (or high, upper) Heating Value

The gross or high heating value is the amount of heat produced by the complete combustion of a unit quantity of fuel.

The gross heating value is obtained when

• all products of the combustion are cooled down to the temperature before the combustion
• the water vapor formed during combustion is condensed

In thermodynamics, the term standard heat of combustion corresponds to Gross heating value. See Heat of combustion for examples of calculation of gross heating values from standard heat of formation of substances.

### Net (or lower) Heating Value

The net or lower heating value is obtained by

• subtracting the latent heat of vaporization of the water vapor formed by the combustion

from the gross or higher heating value.

### Common Units

Common units for heating value:

• 1 Btu/lb = 2326.1 J/kg = 0.55556 kcal/kg
• 1 J/kg = 0.00043 Btu/lb = 2.39x10-4 kcal/kg
• 1 kcal/kg = 1.80 Btu/lb = 4187 J/kg

## Related Topics

• Combustion - Boiler house topics, fuels like oil, gas, coal, wood - chimneys, safety valves, tanks - combustion efficiency.
• Thermodynamics - Work, heat and energy systems.

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## Unit Converters

Temperature

oC
oF

Length

m
km
in
ft
yards
miles
naut miles

Area

m2
km2
in2
ft2
miles2
acres

Volume

m3
liters
in3
ft3
us gal

Weight

kgf
N
lbf

Velocity

m/s
km/h
ft/min
ft/s
mph
knots

Pressure

Pa (N/m2)
bar
mm H2O
kg/cm2
psi
inches H2O

Flow

m3/s
m3/h
US gpm
cfm

2 6

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