Water - Thermal Properties

Thermal properties of water - density, freezing temperature, boiling temperature, latent heat of melting, latent heat of evaporation, critical temperature and more

Some common used thermal properties for water:

  • Maximum density at 4 oC - 1,000 kg/m3, 1.940 slugs/ft3
  • Specific Weight at 4 oC - 9.807 kN/m3, 62.43 Lbs./Cu.Ft, 8.33 Lbs./Gal., 0.1337 Cu.Ft./Gal.
  • Freezing temperature - 0 oC (Official Ice at 0 oC)
  • Boiling temperature - 100 oC
  • Latent heat of melting - 334 kJ/kg
  • Latent heat of evaporation - 2,270 kJ/kg
  • Critical temperature - 380 oC - 386 oC
  • Critical pressure - 221.2 bar, 22.1 MPa (MN/m2)
  • Specific heat water - 4.187 kJ/kgK
  • Specific heat ice - 2.108 kJ/kgK
  • Specific heat water vapor - 1.996 kJ/kgK
  • Thermal expansion from 4 oC to 100 oC - 4.2x10-2 (volumetric temperature expansion of water is not linear with temperature)
  • Bulk modulus elasticity - 2.15 x 109 (Pa, N/m2)

Thermal properties of water:

Temperature
- t -
Absolute pressure
- p -
Density
- ρ -
Specific volume
- v -
Specific Heat
- cp -
Specific entropy
- e -
(oC) (kN/m2) (kg/m3) 10-3 (m3/kg) (kJ/kgK) (kJ/kgK)
0
(Ice)
  916.8      
0.01 0.6 999.8 1.00 4.210 0
4
(maximum density)
0.9 1000.0      
5 0.9 1000.0 1.00 4.204 0.075
10 1.2 999.8 1.00 4.193 0.150
15 1.7 999.2 1.00 4.18551) 0.223
20 2.3 998.3 1.00 4.183 0.296
25 3.2 997.1 1.00 4.181 0.367
30 4.3 995.7 1.00 4.179 0.438
35 5.6 994.1 1.01 4.178 0.505
40 7.7 992.3 1.01 4.179 0.581
45 9.6 990.2 1.01 4.181 0.637
50 12.5 988 1.01 4.182 0.707
55 15.7 986 1.01 4.183 0.767
60 20.0 983 1.02 4.185 0.832
65 25.0 980 1.02 4.188 0.893
70 31.3 978 1.02 4.191 0.966
75 38.6 975 1.03 4.194 1.016
80 47.5 972 1.03 4.198 1.076
85 57.8 968 1.03 4.203 1.134
90 70.0 965 1.04 4.208 1.192
95 84.5 962 1.04 4.213 1.250
100 101.33 958 1.04 4.219 1.307
105 121 954 1.05 4.226 1.382
110 143 951 1.05 4.233 1.418
115 169 947 1.06 4.240 1.473
120 199 943 1.06 4.248 1.527
125 228 939 1.06 4.26 1.565
130 270 935 1.07 4.27 1.635
135 313 931 1.07 4.28 1.687
140 361 926 1.08 4.29 1.739
145 416 922 1.08 4.30 1.790
150 477 918 1.09 4.32 1.842
155 543 912 1.10 4.34 1.892
160 618 907 1.10 4.35 1.942
165 701 902 1.11 4.36 1.992
170 792 897 1.11 4.38 2.041
175 890 893 1.12 4.39 2.090
180 1000 887 1.13 4.42 2.138
185 1120 882 1.13 4.45 2.187
190 1260 876 1.14 4.46 2.236
195 1400 870 1.15   2.282
200 1550 864 1.16 4.51 2.329
220 840 4.63
225 2550 834 1.20 4.65 2.569
240 814 4.78
250 3990 799 125 4.87 2.797
260 784 4.98
275 5950 756 1.32 5.20 3.022
300 8600 714 1.40 5.65 3.256
325 12130 654 1.53 6.86 3.501
350 16540 575 1.74 10.1 3.781
360 18680 528 1.90 14.6 3.921

1) The International Committee for Weights and Measures, Paris, 1950, accepted W. J. de Haas’s recommended value of 4.1855 J/g°C for the specific heat capacity of water at 15 °C.

  • 1 kg/m3 = 0.001 g/cm3 = 0.0005780 oz/in3 = 0.16036 oz/gal (Imperial) = 0.1335 oz/gal (U.S.) = 0.0624 lb/ft3 = 0.000036127 lb/in3 = 1.6856 lb/yd3 = 0.010022 lb/gal (Imperial) = 0.008345 lb/gal (U.S) = 0.0007525 ton/yd3
  • 1 N/m2 = 1 Pa = 1.4504x10-4 lb/in2 = 1x10-5 bar = 4.03x10-3 in water = 0.336x10-3 ft water = 0.1024 mm water = 0.295x10-3 in mercury = 7.55x10-3 mm mercury = 0.1024 kg/m2 = 0.993x10-5 atm
  • 1 m3/kg = 16.02 ft3/lbm = 27680 in3/lbm = 119.8 US gal/lbm = 1000 liter/kg
  • 1 kJ/(kg K) = 0.2389 kcal/(kg oC) = 0.2389 Btu/(lbm oF)
water temperature absolute pressure density

 

Temperature
- t -
Absolute pressure
- p -
Dynamic viscosity
- μ -
Kinematic
viscosity
- ν -
Expansion
coefficient
Specific enthalpy Prandtl's no.
(oC) (kN/m2) (Centipoise) 10-6 (m2/s) 10-3 (1/K) (kJ/kg)  
0.01 0.6 1.78 1.792 -0.07 0 13.67
5 0.9 1.52 0.160 21.0
10 1.2 1.31 1.304 0.088 41.9 9.47
15 1.7 1.14 0.151 62.9
20 2.3 1.00 1.004 0.207 83.8 7.01
25 3.2 0.890 0.257 104.8
30 4.3 0.798 0.801 0.303 125.7 5.43
35 5.6 0.719 0.345 146.7
40 7.7 0.653 0.658 0.385 167.6 4.34
45 9.6 0.596 0.420 188.6
50 12.5 0.547 0.553 0.457 209.6 3.56
55 15.7 0.504 0.486 230.5
60 20.0 0.467 0.474 0.523 251.5 2.99
65 25.0 0.434 0.544 272.4
70 31.3 0.404 0.413 0.585 293.4 2.56
75 38.6 0.378 0.596 314.3
80 47.5 0.355 0.365 0.643 335.3 2.23
85 57.8 0.334 0.644 356.2
90 70.0 0.314 0.326 0.665 377.2 1.96
95 84.5 0.297 0.687 398.1
100 101.33 0.281 0.295 0.752 419.1 1.75
105 121 0.267 440.2
110 143 0.253 461.3
115 169 0.241 482.5
120 199 0.230 0.249 0.860 503.7 1.45
125 228 0.221 524.3
130 270 0.212 546.3
135 313 0.204 567.7
140 361 0.196 0.215 0.975 588.7 1.25
145 416 0.190 610.0
150 477 0.185 631.8
155 543 0.180 653.8
160 618 0.174 0.189 1.098 674.5 1.09
165 701 0.169 697.3
170 792 0.163 718.1
175 890 0.158 739.8
180 1000 0.153 0.170 1.233 763.1 0.98
185 1120 0.149 785.3
190 1260 0.145 807.5
195 1400 0.141 829.9
200 1550 0.138 0.158 1.392 851.7 0.92
220 0.149 1.597 0.88
225 2550 0.121 966.8
240 0.142 1.862 0.87
250 3990 0.110 1087
260 0.137 2.21 0.87
275 5950 0.0972 1211
300 8600 0.0897 1345
325 12130 0.0790 1494
350 16540 0.0648 1672
360 18680 0.0582 1764
  • 1 m2/s = 104 St = 106 cSt = 10.764 ft2/s= 38750 ft2/h
  • 1 J/kg = 4.299x10-4 Btu/lbm = 2.388x10-4 kcal/kg

Water - Temperature and Specific Volume

water temperature specific volume

Water, Pressure-Temperature Melting Line

Pressure
(bar)
Temperature
(oC)
1.01325 0.0026
50 -0.362
100 -0.741
150 -1.125
200 -1.517
250 -1.9151
300 -2.321
400 -3.153
500 -4.016
600 -4.91
800 -6.79
1000 -8.80

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