# Thermodynamics

## Thermodynamics of steam and condensate applications

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### Air and Steam Mixture

With air in the steam the surface temperatures in heat exchangers will be lower - less heat than excepted will be transferred

### Arithmetic and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference - *AMTD* - and Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference - *LMTD* - formulas with examples - Online Mean Temperature Calculator

### Boiler Capacity

It is common to express the output of steam boilers in Boiler Horsepower, MBTU or in Pounds of Steam delivered per hour

### Boiler Horsepower

Determine boiler horsepower from heat transfer area

### Conductive Heat Transfer

Heat transfer takes place as conduction if there is a temperature gradient in a solid or fluid

### Cylinder or Pipe - Conductive Heat Loss

Conductive heat loss through cylinder or pipe walls

### Electrical Heating of a Mass

Temperature change when mass is electrical heated

### Enthalpy Entropy Diagram Steam

Enthalpy and entropy chart for steam

### Enthalpy of Superheated Steam

A table with the enthalpy of steam superheated to temperatures above the boiling point with corresponding temperatures

### Enthalpy of Wet Steam

Wet steam, dryness fraction and enthalpy

### Entropy of Superheated Steam

A table with the entropy of steam superheated to temperatures above the boiling point with corresponding temperatures

### Heat Transferred by Condensing Steam

Calculate heat transferred by condensing steam

### Heating Air with Steam

Calculating heating air with steam

### Heating Water by Injection Steam

Water can be heated by injecting steam

### Humidifying Air with Steam - SI units

The amount of vapor - *kg per cubic meter* - in humid air

### Online Saturated Steam Table Calculator

Online calculator to compute the thermodynamic properties of saturated steam

### Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for some common Fluids and Heat Exchanger Surfaces

Average overall heat transmission coefficients for some common fluids and surface combinations as Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more

### Power Plant Performance Factors

Power plants and heat rate, thermal efficiency, capacity factor, load factor, economic efficiency, operational efficiency, energy efficiency

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### Properties of Saturated Steam - Imperial Units

A steam table with sensible, latent and total heat, and specific volume at different gauge pressures and temperatures

### Properties of Saturated Steam - Pressure in Bar

The Saturated Steam Table with properties as boiling point, specific volume, density, specific enthalpy, specific heat and latent heat of vaporization

### Properties of Saturated Steam - SI Units

A Saturated Steam Table with steam properties as specific volume, density, specific enthalpy and specific entropy

### Specific Volume of Wet Steam

Wet steam an specific volume

### Steam & Condensate Equations

Steam consumption and condensate generation formulas heating liquids or gas flows

### Steam Entropy

Basic steam thermodynamics and the entropy diagram

### Steam Flow Rate and kW Rating

Determine the steam flow rate from a kW rating

### Steam Heating Processes - Load Calculating

Calculating the amount of steam in non-flow batch and continuous flow heating processes

### Steam Viscosity

Steam absolute viscosity at pressures ranging *1 - 10000 psia*

### Steam and Vapor Enthalpy

Introduction and definition of vapor and steam enthalpy - specific enthalpy of saturated liquid, saturated vapor and superheated vapor

### Temperature and Moisture Holding Capacity of Air

The moisture holding capacity of air varies with temperature

### Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

In a boiler generating steam, impurities in the feedwater concentrates in the boiling water

### Vapor and Steam

Introduction to vapor and steam

### Water - Evacuation Pressure and Temperature

Boiling temperatures of water in vacuum

### Water Saturation Pressure

Water saturation pressure at temperatures ranging* 0 - 100 ^{o}C* and

*32 - 700*- Imperial and SI Units

^{o}F### Water Steam - Critical Point

The level where vapor and liquid are indistinguishable

### Wet Steam Quality and the Dryness Fraction

An introduction and definition of vapor or steam quality and dryness fraction. Includes formulas for calculating wet steams enthalpy and specific volume