Soil and Rock Bulking Factors

Soil or rock expansion - swell - after mining

One cubic of soil or rock at the borrow expands and does not translate into one cubic of fill in the lorry, stockpiled or placed and compacted on the site.

soil - from borrow to lorry

Bulking or Swell factors for some common materials are indicated below:

MaterialDensity at the Borrow
103
(kg/m3)
Bulking (Swell) Factor
(%)
Basalt 2.4 - 3.1 75 - 80
Clay 1.8 - 2.6 20 - 40
Dolomite 2.8 50 - 60
Earth 20 - 30
Gneiss 2.69 75 - 80
Granite 2.6 - 2.8 75 - 80
Gravel, dry 1.80 20 - 30
Gravel, wet 2.00 20 - 30
Gravel, wet w/clay 50 - 60
Limestone 2.7 -2.8 75 - 80
Loam 15 - 25
Quartz 2.65 75 - 80
Rock 40 - 80
Sand, dry 1.60 20 - 30
Sand, wet 1.95 20 - 30
Sandstone 2.1 - 2.4 75 - 80
Slate 2.6 - 3.3 85 - 90
Soil 1.2 - 1.6 20 - 30
  • 1 kg/m3 = 0.001 g/cm3 = 0.0005780 oz/in3 = 0.16036 oz/gal (Imperial) = 0.1335 oz/gal (U.S.) = 0.0624 lb/ft3 = 0.000036127 lb/in3 = 1.6856 lb/yd3 = 0.010022 lb/gal (Imperial) = 0.008345 lb/gal (U.S) = 0.0007525 ton/yd3

Example - Swell Factor

After excavation 300 m3 with bulking factor 40% swells to

(300 m3) (100% + 40%) / 100% = 420 m3 

Related Topics

  • Miscellaneous - Miscellaneous engineering related topics like Beaufort Wind Scale, CE-marking, drawing standards and more

Related Documents

Search the Engineering ToolBox

- "the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox!"

Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Edition - Online 3D modeling!

3D Engineering ToolBox - draw and model technical applications

Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Edition - add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping and more - to your SketchUp model - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro. Add from the Sketchup Extension Warehouse!

Translate the Engineering ToolBox!
About the Engineering ToolBox!

close