# Torques in Electrical Induction Motors

## Torques used to describe and classify electrical motors

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Torque is the turning force through a radius with the units - *Nm -* in the SI-system and - *lb ft* - in the imperial system.

The torque developed by an asynchronous induction motor varies when the motor accelerates from full stop (or zero speed) to maximum operating speed.

### Locked Rotor or Starting Torque

The **Locked Rotor Torque** or **Starting Torque** is the torque the electrical motor develop when its starts at rest or zero speed.

A high Starting Torque is more important for application or machines hard to start - as positive displacement pumps, cranes etc. A lower Starting Torque can be accepted for centrifugal fans or pumps where the start load is low or close to zero.

### Pull-up Torque

The **Pull-up Torque** is the minimum torque developed by the electrical motor when it runs from zero to full-load speed (before it reaches the break-down torque point)

When the motor starts and begins to accelerate the torque in general decrease until it reach a low point at a certain speed - the pull-up torque - before the torque increases until it reach the highest torque at a higher speed - the break-down torque - point.

The pull-up torque may be critical for applications that needs power to go through some temporary barriers achieving the working conditions.

### Break-down Torque

The **Break-down Torque** is the highest torque available before the torque decreases when the machine continues to accelerate to the working conditions.

### Full-load (Rated) Torque or Braking Torque

The Full-load Torque is the torque required to produce the rated power of the electrical motor at full-load speed.

In imperial units the Full-load Torque can be expressed as

T = 5252 P_{hp}/ n_{r}(1)

where

T= full-load torque (lb ft)

P_{hp}= rated horsepower

n_{r}= rated rotational speed (rev/min, rpm)

In metric units the rated torque can be expressed as

T = 9550 P_{kW}/ n_{r}(2)

where

T = rated torque (Nm)

P_{kW}= rated power (kW)

n_{r}= rated rotational speed (rpm)

#### Example - Electrical Motor and Braking Torque

The torque of a *60 hp* motor rotating at *1725 rpm* can be expressed as:

T_{fl}=(60 hp) 5,252 / (1725 rpm)

= 182.7 lb ft

### NEMA Design

NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) have classified electrical motors in four different designs where torques and starting-load inertia are important criteria.

IEC/NEMA Standard Torques (percent of full load torque) | ||||||

Power (hp) | 2 Pole | 4 Pole | ||||

Locked Rotor Torque | Pull Up Torque | Break Down Torque | Locked Rotor Torque | Pull Up Torque | Break Down Torque | |

3 | 170/160 | 110/110 | 200/230 | 180/215 | 120/150 | 200/250 |

5 | 160/150 | 110/105 | 200/215 | 170/185 | 120/130 | 200/225 |

7.5 | 150/140 | 100/100 | 200/200 | 160/175 | 110/120 | 200/215 |

10 | 150/135 | 100/100 | 200/200 | 160/165 | 110/115 | 200/200 |

15 - 20 | 140/130 | 100/100 | 200/200 | 150/150 | 110/105 | 200/200 |

### Accelerating Torque

Accelerating Torque = Available Motor Torque - Load Torque

### Reduced Voltage Soft Starters

Reduced Voltage Soft Starters are used to limit the start current reducing the Locked Rotor Torque or Starting Torque and are common in applications which is hard to start or must be handled with care - like positive displacement pumps, cranes, elevators and similar.

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