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# Fixed Pipes - Stress vs. Change in Temperature

## Temperature changes introduces stress fixed pipes.

With temperature change stress is introduced in fixed pipes. The stress can be calculated as:

σ = α E dt                                   (1)

where

σ = stress (MPa, lb/in2)

α = linear expansion coefficient (m/moK, inch/inchoF)

E = modulus of elasticity of the piping material (MPa, lb/in2)

dt = temperature change from installation temperature (oC, oF)

The stress must not exceed maximum allowable stress for the chosen piping material. Be aware that with frequently temperature changes - the stress cycle (with stress well below the maximum allowable limit) may fatigue the pipe.

### Example - Introduced Stress in a Fixed Pipe when Temperature Changes

A carbon steel pipe with linear expansion coefficient 11.7 10-6 m/moC and modulus of elasticity 29.5 106 psi (203 109 Pa (N/m2), 203000 MPa, 203 GPa) is heated from 0oC to 50oC. The stress introduced in the pipe can be calculated as

σ = (11.7 10-6 m/moC) (203 109 N/m2) ((50oC) - (0oC))

= 119 106 N/m2

= 119  MPa

Depending on the material and the codes used - this may be within maximum allowable stress.

## Related Topics

• ### Temperature Expansion

Thermal expansion and expansion coefficients. Expansion pipes and tubes made of stainless steel, carbon steel, copper, plastics and more.

## Related Documents

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Temperature expansion coefficients for materials used in pipes and tubes like aluminum, carbon steel, cast iron, PVC, HDPE and more.
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Hoop and longitudinal stress thin-walled tubes or cylinders.
• ### Thermal Expansion - Linear Expansion Coefficients

Linear temperature expansion coefficients for common materials like aluminum, copper, glass, iron and many more.
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Expansion of steam pipes heated from room temperature to operation temperature.

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## Citation

• The Engineering ToolBox (2005). Fixed Pipes - Stress vs. Change in Temperature. [online] Available at: https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/pipes-temperature-stress-d_967.html [Accessed Day Month Year].

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6.3.17

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