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# Fixed Pipes - Stress vs. Change in Temperature

## Temperature changes introduces stress fixed pipes.

With temperature change stress is introduced in fixed pipes. The stress can be calculated as:

σ = α E dt                                   (1)

where

σ = stress (MPa, lb/in2)

α = linear expansion coefficient (m/moK, inch/inchoF)

E = modulus of elasticity of the piping material (MPa, lb/in2)

dt = temperature change from installation temperature (oC, oF)

The stress must not exceed maximum allowable stress for the chosen piping material. Be aware that with frequently temperature changes - the stress cycle (with stress well below the maximum allowable limit) may fatigue the pipe.

### Example - Introduced Stress in a Fixed Pipe when Temperature Changes

A carbon steel pipe with linear expansion coefficient 11.7 10-6 m/moC and modulus of elasticity 29.5 106 psi (203 109 Pa (N/m2), 203000 MPa, 203 GPa) is heated from 0oC to 50oC. The stress introduced in the pipe can be calculated as

σ = (11.7 10-6 m/moC) (203 109 N/m2) ((50oC) - (0oC))

= 119 106 N/m2

= 119  MPa

Depending on the material and the codes used - this may be within maximum allowable stress.

### Stress Calculator

Linear expansion coefficient (m/moC)

Modulus of elasticity (MPa)

Temperature differance (oC)

## Related Topics

• Temperature Expansion - Thermal expansion of pipes and tubes - stainless steel, carbon steel, copper, plastics and more.

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Temperature

oC
oF

Length

m
km
in
ft
yards
miles
naut miles

Area

m2
km2
in2
ft2
miles2
acres

Volume

m3
liters
in3
ft3
us gal

Weight

kgf
N
lbf

Velocity

m/s
km/h
ft/min
ft/s
mph
knots

Pressure

Pa (N/m2)
bar
mm H2O
kg/cm2
psi
inches H2O

Flow

m3/s
m3/h
US gpm
cfm

3 30