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Young's Modulus - Tensile and Yield Strength for common Materials

Young's Modulus or Tensile Modulus alt. Modulus of Elasticity - and Ultimate Tensile and Yield Strength for steel, glass, wood and other common materials

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Tensile Modulus - or Young's Modulus alt. Modulus of Elasticity - is a measure of stiffness of an elastic material. It is used to describe the elastic properties of objects like wires, rods or columns when they are stretched or compressed.

Tensile Modulus is defined as the

"ratio of stress (force per unit area) along an axis to strain (ratio of deformation over initial length) along that axis"

It can be used to predict the elongation or compression of an object as long as the stress is less than the yield strength of the material. More about the definitions below the table.

MaterialTensile Modulus
(Young's Modulus, Modulus of Elasticity)
- E -
(GPa)

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Ultimate Tensile Strength
- σu -
(MPa)

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Yield Strength
- σy -
(MPa)

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ABS plastics 1.4 - 3.1 40
A53 Seamless and Welded Standard Steel Pipe - Grade A 331 207
A53 Seamless and Welded Standard Steel Pipe - Grade B 414 241
A106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe - Grade A 400 248
A106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe - Grade B 483 345
A106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe - Grade C 483 276
A252 Piling Steel Pipe - Grade 1 345 207
A252 Piling Steel Pipe - Grade 2 414 241
A252 Piling Steel Pipe - Grade 3 455 310
A501 Hot Formed Carbon Steel Structural Tubing - Grade A 400 248
A501 Hot Formed Carbon Steel Structural Tubing - Grade B 483 345
A523 Cable Circuit Steel Piping - Grade A 331 207
A523 Cable Circuit Steel Piping - Grade B 414 241
A618 Hot-Formed High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Tubing - Grade Ia & Ib 483 345
A618 Hot-Formed High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Tubing - Grade II 414 345
A618 Hot-Formed High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Tubing - Grade III 448 345
API 5L Line Pipe 310 - 1145 175 - 1048
Acetals 2.8 65
Acrylic 3.2 70
Aluminum Bronze 120
Aluminum 69 110 95
Aluminum Alloys 70
Antimony 78    
Aramid 70 - 112
Beryllium (Be) 287    
Beryllium Copper 124
Bismuth 32    
Bone, compact 18 170
(compression)
Bone, spongy 76
Boron 3100
Brass 102 - 125 250
Brass, Naval 100
Bronze 96 - 120
CAB 0.8
Cadmium 32    
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic 150
Carbon nanotube, single-walled 1000
Cast Iron 4.5% C, ASTM A-48 170
Cellulose,  cotton, wood pulp and regenerated 80 - 240
Cellulose acetate, molded 12 - 58
Cellulose acetate, sheet 30 - 52
Cellulose nitrate, celluloid 50
Chlorinated polyether 1.1 39
Chlorinated PVC (CPVC) 2.9
Chromium 248    
Cobalt 207    
Concrete 17
Concrete, High Strength (compression) 30 40
(compression)
Copper 117 220 70
Diamond (C) 1220
Douglas fir Wood 13 50
(compression)
Epoxy resins 3-2 26 - 85
Fiberboard, Medium Density 4
Flax fiber 58
Glass 50 - 90 50
(compression)
Glass reinforced polyester matrix 17
Gold 74    
Granite 52
Graphene 1000
Grey Cast Iron 130
Hemp fiber 35
Inconel 214
Iridium 517    
Iron 210    
Lead 13.8    
Magnesium metal (Mg) 45
Manganese 159    
Marble 15
MDF - Medium-density fiberboard 4
Mercury      
Molybdenum (Mo) 329    
Monel Metal 179
Nickel 170    
Nickel Silver 128
Nickel Steel 200
Niobium (Columbium) 103    
Nylon-6 2 - 4 45 - 90 45
Nylon-66 60 - 80
Oak Wood (along grain) 11
Osmium (Os) 550    
Phenolic cast resins 33 - 59
Phenol-formaldehyde molding compounds 45 - 52
Phosphor Bronze 116
Pine Wood (along grain) 9 40
Platinum 147    
Plutonium 97    
Polyacrylonitrile, fibers 200
Polybenzoxazole 3.5
Polycarbonates 2.6 52 - 62
Polyethylene HDPE (high density) 0.8 15
Polyethylene Terephthalate, PET 2 - 2.7 55
Polyamide 2.5 85
Polyisoprene, hard rubber 39
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) 2.4 - 3.4
Polyimide aromatics 3.1 68
Polypropylene, PP 1.5 - 2 28 - 36
Polystyrene, PS 3 - 3.5 30 - 100
Polyethylene, LDPE (low density) 0.11 - 0.45
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 0.4
Polyurethane cast liquid 10 - 20
Polyurethane elastomer 29  - 55
Polyvinylchloride (PVC) 2.4 - 4.1
Potassium      
Rhodium 290    
Rubber, small strain 0.01 - 0.1
Sapphire 435
Selenium 58    
Silicon 130 - 185    
Silicon Carbide 450 3440
Silver 72    
Sodium      
Steel, High Strength Alloy ASTM A-514 760 690
Steel, stainless AISI 302 180 860 502
Steel, Structural ASTM-A36 200 400 250
Tantalum 186    
Thorium 59    
Tin 47
Titanium      
Titanium Alloy 105 - 120 900 730
Tooth enamel 83
Tungsten (W) 400 - 410
Tungsten Carbide (WC) 450 - 650
Uranium 170    
Vanadium 131    
Wrought Iron 190 - 210    
Wood
Zinc 83
  • 1 Pa (N/m2) = 1x10-6 N/mm2 = 1.4504x10-4 psi
  •  1 MPa = 106 Pa (N/m2) = 0.145x103 psi (lbf/in2) = 0.145 ksi
  • 1 GPa = 109 N/m2 = 106 N/cm2  = 103 N/mm2 = 0.145x106 psi (lbf/in2)
  • 1 Mpsi = 106 psi = 103 ksi
  • 1 psi (lb/in2) = 0.001 ksi = 144 psf (lbf/ft2) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m2) = 6.895x10-3 N/mm2

Note! - this online pressure converter can be used to convert between units of Tensile modulus.

Strain - ε

Strain is the "deformation of a solid due to stress" - change in dimension divided by the original value of the dimension - and can be expressed as

ε = dL / L                                          (1)

where

ε = strain (m/m, in/in)

dL = elongation or compression (offset) of object (m, in)

L = length of object (m, in)

Stress - σ

Stress is force per unit area and can be expressed as

σ = F / A                                           (2)

where

σ = stress (N/m2, lb/in2, psi)

F = applied force (N, lb)

A = stress area of object (m2, in2)

  • tensile stress - stress that tends to stretch or lengthen the material - acts normal to the stressed area
  • compressible stress - stress that tends to compress or shorten the material - acts normal to the stressed area
  • shearing stress - stress that tends to shear the material - acts in plane to the stressed area at right-angles to compressible or tensile stress

Young's Modulus - Tensile Modulus, Modulus of Elasticity - E

Young's modulus can be expressed as

E = stress / strain

   =  σ / ε

   = (F / A) / (dL / L)                                    (3)

where

E = Young's Modulus of Elasticity (Pa, N/m2, lb/in2, psi)

  • named after the 18th-century English physician and physicist Thomas Young

Elasticity

Elasticity is a property of an object or material indicating how it will restore it to its original shape after distortion.

A spring is an example of an elastic object - when stretched, it exerts a restoring force which tends to bring it back to its original length. This restoring force is in general proportional to the stretch described by Hooke's Law.

Hooke's Law

It takes about twice as much force to stretch a spring twice as far. That linear dependence of displacement upon the stretching force is called Hooke's law and can be expressed as

Fs = -k dL                                          (4)

where

Fs = force in the spring (N)

k = spring constant (N/m)

dL = elongation of the spring (m)

Note that Hooke's Law can also be applied to materials undergoing three dimensional stress (triaxial loading).

Yield strength - σy

Yield strength is defined in engineering as the amount of stress (Yield point) that a material can undergo before moving from elastic deformation into plastic deformation.

  • Yielding - a material deforms permanently

The Yield Point is in mild- or medium-carbon steel the stress at which a marked increase in deformation occurs without increase in load. In other steels and in nonferrous metals this phenomenon is not observed.

Ultimate Tensile Strength - σu

The Ultimate Tensile Strength - UTS - of a material is the limit stress at which the material actually breaks, with a sudden release of the stored elastic energy.

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