Boiling points of hydrocarbons, alcohols and acids

Boiling temperature (°C and °F) with varying carbon number up to C33

The tables and figures below show how the boiling point changes with increasing carbon number up to C33 for different kinds of hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids. More detailed definitions and examples of molecular structures  of the different groups are given below the figures.

  • Melting point - the temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid
  • Boiling point - the temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas

For hydrocarbons with the same carbon number the boiling point increases in the following order:

multisubstituted alkane < singelsubstituted alkane < singelsubstituted alkene < normal alkene < normal alkane < alkyl cyclohexane <  alkylbenzene < cycloalkene < cycloalkane < 2-, 4- and 3-alkanol / 1-alkylnaphthalene  < 1-alkanol < normal alkanoic acid

For melting points, the trends are more varying with increasing carbon number for the different types of hydrocarbons.

See also Melting points of hydrocarbons, alcohols and acidsdensities for different kinds of organic compounds and density, boiling and melting points of nitrogen and sulfur compounds.

boiling point figure

boiling point figure



BP and MP of pehenols and alcohols

See also pKa values for phenols, alcohols and carboxylic acids.

Boiling point of hydrocarbons, alcohols and acids, C1-C16°C
Carbon number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
2,2-dimetylalkane 10 50 79 106 133 155
2-methylalkane -12 28 60 90 117 143 167 189 211
2-methylalkene -7 31 62 92 118 145 167
3-methylalkane 63 92 120 144 168 192 212
1-alkene -104 -48 -6 30 64 94 121 147 172 193 213 233 251
N-alkane -162 -89 -42 -1 36 69 98 126 151 174 196 216 235 254 270 287
1-alkyne -84 -23 8 40 71 100 126 151 174 196 215 234 284
Alkylcyclohexane* 101 132 156 178 204 225 244 263
Alkylcyclopentane 72 104 131 156 180 206 224 242 262 279
Alkylbenzene* 80 111 136 159 183 205 226 242 263
Cycloalkene** -36 2 44 83 115
Cycloalkane** -33 13 49 81 119 151 173 202
2-alkanol 82 99 119 138 159 179 194 212 231 249
4-alkanol 161 176 193 214
3-alkanol 123 135 163 184 197 217 230 246
1-alkylnaphthalene 218 240 258 273
1-alkanol 65 78 97 118 138 157 178 195 214 229 246 264 287 296
Alkanoic acid 101 118 142 164 186 202 222 240 256 270 280 296 308 351
Boiling point of hydrocarbons, alcohols and acids, C1-C16, °F
Carbon number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
2,2-dimetylalkane 49 121 174 223 271 311
2-methylalkane 11 82 141 194 243 289 333 373 412
2-methylalkene 20 88 144 198 244 293 333
3-methylalkane 146 198 248 291 334 378 414
1-alkene -155 -54 21 86 146 200 250 297 342 379 415 451 484
N-alkane -259 -127 -44 31 97 156 209 258 303 345 385 421 456 488 518 549
1-alkyne -119 -10 47 104 160 212 259 303 345 385 419 453 543
Alkylcyclohexane* 214 270 313 352 399 437 471 505
Alkylcyclopentane 161 219 268 313 356 403 435 468 504 534
Alkylbenzene* 176 231 277 319 361 401 439 468 505
Cycloalkene** -33 36 112 181 239
Cycloalkane** -27 55 121 177 246 304 343 396
2-alkanol 180 211 246 280 318 354 380 414 448 480
4-alkanol 322 349 379 417
3-alkanol 253 275 325 363 387 423 445 474
1-alkylnaphthalene 424 464 496 523
1-alkanol 148 173 207 244 280 314 352 382 417 444 475 507 549 564
Alkanoic acid 214 244 287 327 367 396 432 464 493 518 536 565 586 664
* C#(N-alkyl)=0-10
** rings without substituents

Molecular structure hydrocarbone alcohol acid

Definitions of organic compounds

Hydrocarbon: An organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

Main groups of hydrocarbons:

Alkane: An acyclic saturated hydrocarbon, with the general formula CnH2n+2. Also called paraffin.

Alkene: An unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond, with the general formula CnH2n. Also called olefine.

Alkyne: An unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond, with the general formula CnH2n-2. Also called acetylene.

Cycloalkane: A one-ring (monocyclic) saturated hydrocarbon, with the general formula CnH2n. Also called naphthene.

Cycloalkene: An alkene hydrocarbon which contains a closed ring of carbon atoms, but has no aromatic character, with the general formula CnH2n-2. Also called cycloolefin.

Aromatic hydrocarbon: A cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms. The simplest of the aromatics have 6 carbon atoms and contains 3 double bounds.  A one ring aromatic without any substituents is called benzene, with the formula C6H6.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: hydrocarbon that are composed of multiple aromatic rings. A two ring aromatic without any substituents is called naphthalene, with the formula C10H8.

Some under-groups of hydrocarbons given in this document:

Alkyl: An alkane substituent missing one hydrogen, with general formula CnH2n+1

2-Methylalkane: A branched alkane, with a methyl group connected to the second carbon atom in the main carbon chain.

3-Methylalkane: A branched alkane, with a methyl group connected to the third carbon atom in the main carbon chain.

2-Methylalkene: A branched alkene, with a methyl group connected to the second carbon atom in the main carbon chain.

Alkylcycklohexane: A monosubstituted cyclohexane with one branching via the attachment of one alkyl group on one carbon of the cyclohexane ring, with the general formula CnH(2n+1)C6H11.

Alkylcycklopentane: A monosubstituted cyclopentane with one branching via the attachment of one alkyl group on one carbon of the cyclohexane ring, with the general formula CnH2n+1C5H9.

Alkylbenzene: A monosubstituted benzene with one branching via the attachment of one alkyl group on one carbon of the benzene ring, with the general formula CnH(2n+1)C6H5.

Alkylnaphthalene: A monosubstituted naphthalene with one branching via the attachment of one alkyl group on one carbon of one of the aromatic rings, with the general formula CnH(2n+1)C10H7.

Some other groups of organic compounds:

Alcohol: an organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom

Alkanol: An alcohol where the hydroxyl group is connected to an alkane

Carboxylic acid: an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH). The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R–COOH, with R referring to the rest of the molecule.

Alkanoic acid: A carboxylic acid where the R is an alkane.

 

 

 

Related Topics

  • Material Properties - Material properties for gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more
  • Boiling point - Documents giving boiling point of elements and different kind of chemical species at varying conditions

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