Physical data for hydrocarbons

Molweight, melting and boiling point, density, flash point and autoignition temperature, as well as number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in each molecule are given for 200 different hydrocarbons

Below the table, examples of molecule structures for the different classes of hydrocarbons are given, together with a definition of the different classes of hydrocarbons.

For figures showing trends for the different classes with increasing chain lengths, as well as molecular structures, see also

Class of hydrocarbon
IUPAC name Common name #C #H Molweight
g/mol
Melting point
°C
Boiling point
°C
Density@20°C*
g/ml
Flash point
°C
Autoignition temp
°C
N-alkane Methane 1 4 16.04 -183 -162 - -135 595
N-alkane Ethane 2 6 30.07 -183 -89 - -135 515
N-alkane Propane 3 8 44.09 -188 -42 0.498 -104 470
N-alkane N-butane Butane 4 10 58.12 -138 -1 0.577 -60 365
N-alkane N-pentane Pentane 5 12 72.15 -130 36 0.630 -49 260
N-alkane N-hexane Hexane 6 14 86.17 -95 69 0.664 <-20 230
N-alkane N-heptane Heptane 7 16 100.20 -91 98 0.683 -7 220
N-alkane N-octane Octane 8 18 114.22 -57 126 0.702 12 205
N-alkane N-nonane Nonane 9 20 128.25 -53 151 0.719 31 205
N-alkane N-decane Decane 10 22 142.28 -30 174 0.730 46 200
N-alkane N-undecane 11 24 156.30 -26 196 0.740 61 195
N-alkane N-dodecane 12 26 170.33 -10 216 0.750 80 200
N-alkane N-tridecane 13 28 184.35 -5 235 0.756
N-alkane N-tetradecane 14 30 198.38 6 254 0.760
N-alkane N-pentadecane 15 32 212.41 15 270 0.769
N-alkane N-hexadecane 16 34 226.43 18 287 0.773
N-alkane N-heptadecane 17 36 240.46 22 303 0.778
N-alkane N-octadecane 18 38 254.48 28 316 0.77728
N-alkane N-nonadecane 19 40 268.51 32 330 0.785
N-alkane N-eicosane 20 42 282.54 37 344 0.789 187
N-alkane N-heneicosane 21 44 296.56 40 359 0.792
N-alkane N-docosane 22 46 310.59 44 369 0.794 211
N-alkane N-tricosane 23 48 324.61 47 381 0.77948
N-alkane N-tetracosane 24 50 338.64 50 391 0.799
N-alkane N-pentacosane 25 52 352.67 53 402 0.801
N-alkane N-hexacosane 26 54 366.69 56 415 0.77860
N-alkane N-heptacosane 27 56 380.72 59 422 0.78060 269
N-alkane N-octacosane 28 58 394.74 61 435 0.806
N-alkane N-nonacosane 29 60 408.77 64 443 0.808
N-alkane N-triacontane 30 62 422.80 66 451 0.810
N-alkane N-hentriacontane Untriacontane 31 64 436.82 68 458 0.78168
N-alkane N-dotriacontane 32 66 450.85 70 470 0.812
N-alkane N-tritriacontane 33 68 464.87 71
N-alkane N-pentatriacontane 35 72 492.93 74 489 0.816
N-alkane N-tetracontane 40 82 563.06 81 522 0.81725
N-alkane N-pentacontane 50 102 703.32 92 575
N-alkane N-hexacontane 60 122 843.58 100 625
N-alkane N-heptacontane 70 142 983.84 106 647
N-alkane N-octacontane 80 142 1103.94 112 672
N-alkane N-nonacontane 90 142 1224.04 ~750
N-alkane N-hectane 100 142 1344.14 115
2-methylalkane 2-methylpropane iso-butane 4 10 58.12 -160 -12 0.555 -83 460
2-methylalkane 2-methylbutane Iso-pentane 5 12 72.15 -160 28 0.620 -51 420
2-methylalkane 2-methylpentane iso-hexane, i-caproylhydride 6 14 86.17 -154 60 0.653 <-7 300
2-methylalkane 2-methylhexane 7 16 100.20 -118 90 0.679 -10 280
2-methylalkane 2-methylheptane 8 18 114.22 -110 117 0.698 6
2-methylalkane 2-methyloctane isononane, dimethylheptane 9 20 128.25 -80 143 0.714 26
2-methylalkane 2-methylnonane iso-decane 10 22 142.28 -75 167 0.728 46
2-methylalkane 2-methyldecane 11 24 156.30 -49 189 0.737 50
2-methylalkane 2-methylundecane 12 26 170.33 -47 211 0.740 42
3-methylalkane 3-methylpentane Diethylmethylmethane 6 14 86.17 -118 63 0.660 <-20 300
3-methylalkane 3-methylhexane 7 16 100.20 -119 92 0.687 -11 280
3-methylalkane 3-methylheptane 8 18 114.22 -121 120 0.705 6 410
3-methylalkane 3-methyloctane 9 20 128.25 -108 144 0.720
3-methylalkane 3-methylnonane 10 22 142.28 -85 168 0.735
3-methylalkane 3-methyldecane 11 24 156.30 -80 192 0.742
3-methylalkane 3-methylundecane 12 26 170.33 -58 212 0.749
2,2-dimetylalkane 2,2-dimethylpropane Neo-pentane, trimethylethane 5 12 72.15 -17 10 0.590 -19 450
2,2-dimetylalkane 2,2-dimethylbutane Neohexane 6 14 86.17 -100 50 0.649 -48 435
2,2-dimetylalkane 2,2-dimethylpentane 7 16 100.20 -123 79 0.674 -21 320
2,2-dimetylalkane 2,2-dimethylhexane 8 18 114.22 -121 106 0.691 -3
2,2-dimetylalkane 2,2-dimethylheptane 9 20 128.25 -113 133 0.711
2,2-dimetylalkane 2,2-dimethyloctane 10 22 142.28 154 0.724
Trimetylalkane 2,2,4-Trimetylpentane Iso-octane 8 18 114.22 -107 99 0.690 396
1-alkene Ethene Ethylene 2 4 28.05 -169 -104 - 440
1-alkene Propene Propylene 3 6 42.08 -185 -48 0.510 -108 485
1-alkene But-1-ene 1-butene, 1-butylene, Ethylethylene 4 8 56.10 -185 -6 0.593 -80 360
1-alkene 1-pentene n-amylene, propylethylene 5 10 70.13 -165 30 0.641 -51 280
1-alkene 1-hexene 6 12 84.16 -140 64 0.673 -26 255
1-alkene 1-heptene 1-heptylene 7 14 98.18 -119 94 0.697 -8 250
1-alkene 1-octene 1-caprylene 8 16 112.21 -102 121 0.715 10 240
1-alkene 1-nonene 9 18 126.23 -81 147 0.733 26
1-alkene 1-decene 10 20 140.26 -66 172 0.741 44 230
1-alkene 1-undecene 11 22 154.29 -49 193 0.751 63
1-alkene 1-dodecene 12 24 168.31 -35 213 0.758 76 225
1-alkene 1-tridecene 13 26 182.34 -23 233 0.766
1-alkene 1-tetradecene 14 28 196.36 -13 251 0.778
1-alkene 1-pentadecene 15 30 210.39 -4 268 0.776
1-alkene 1-hexadecene 16 32 224.42 4 285 0.781
1-alkene 1-heptadecene 17 34 238.44 11 301 0.785
1-alkene 1-octadecene 18 36 252.47 18 316 0.789
1-alkene 1-nonadecene 19 38 266.49 23 331 0.78925
1-alkene 1-docosene 22 44 308.57 38 367 0.79425
2-methylalkene 2-methyl-1-propene Isobutene, Isobutylene 4 8 56.10 -140 -7 0.594 -80 465
2-methylalkene 2-methyl-1-butene 5 10 70.13 -138 31 0.650 -37
2-methylalkene 2-methyl-1-pentene 1-methyl-1-propylethylene 6 12 84.16 -136 62 0.680 -26 300
2-methylalkene 2-methyl-1-hexene 7 14 98.18 -103 92 0.700 -6
2-methylalkene 2-methyl-1-heptene 8 16 112.21 -90 118 0.722 14
2-methylalkene 2-methyl-1-octene 9 18 126.23 -78 145 0.734 31
2-methylalkene 2-methyl-1-nonene 10 20 140.26 -64 167 0.744
2-methylalkene 2-methyl-1-decene 11 22 154.29 -51
1-alkyne Ethyne Acetylene 2 2 26.04 -81 Sub -84 - 305
1-alkyne Propyne 3 4 40.06 -103 -23 - 340
1-alkyne 1-butyne Ethylacetylene 4 6 54.09 -126 8 0.6830 <-14
1-alkyne 1-pentyne Propylacetylene 5 8 68.11 -106 40 0.690 <-20
1-alkyne 1-hexyne 6 10 82.14 -132 71 0.719 -20 263
1-alkyne 1-heptyne 7 12 96.17 -81 100 0.7333 -2 245
1-alkyne 1-octyne Hexylacetylene 8 14 110.19 -79 126 0.746
1-alkyne 1-nonyne Heptylacetylene 9 16 124.22 -50 151 0.766
1-alkyne 1-decyne Octylacetylene 10 18 138.24 -44 174 0.765
1-alkyne 1-undecyne Nonylacetylene 11 20 152.27 -25 196 0.773
1-alkyne 1-dodecyne Decylacetylene 12 22 166.30 -19 215 0.779
1-alkyne 1-tridecyne 13 24 180.32 1 234 0.784
1-alkyne 1-tetradecyne 14 26 194.35 252 0.790
1-alkyne 1-pentadecyne 15 28 208.37 1.794
1-alkyne 1-hexadecyne 16 30 222.40 15 284 0.796
2-alkyne 2-butyne Crotonylene 4 6 54.09 -32 27 0.691 -25
2-alkyne 2-pentyne Ethylmethylacetylene 5 8 68.11 -109 56 0.709
2-alkyne 2-hexyne 6 10 82.14
Cycloalkane Cyclopropane Trimethylene 3 6 42.08 -129 -33 - 495
Cycloalkane Cyclobutane 4 8 56.10 -91 13 0.7040 <10
Cycloalkane Cyclopentane 5 10 70.13 -94 49 0.746 -51 320
Cycloalkane Cyclohexane Hexamethylene, hexanaphthene 6 12 84.16 7 81 0.777 -18 260
Cycloalkane Cycloheptane 7 14 98.18 -8 119 0.810 6
Cycloalkane Cyclooctane 8 16 112.21 15 151 0.831 28 250
Cycloalkane Cyclononane 9 18 126.23 11 173 0.849
Cycloalkane Cyclodecane 10 20 140.26 10 202 0.857 65
Cycloalkene Cyclopropene 3 4 40.06 - -36 -
Cycloalkene Cyclobutene 4 6 54.09 - 2 0.7170
Cycloalkene Cyclopentene 5 8 68.11 -135 44 0.772 -29 309
Cycloalkene Cyclohexene 6 10 82.14 -104 83 0.811 -17 265
Cycloalkene Cycloheptene 7 12 96.17 -55 115 0.823
Cycloalkene Cyclooctene cis-cyclooctene 8 14 110.19 -13 145 0.848
Alkylcyclopentane Methylcyclopentane 6 12 84.16 -142 72 0.749 <-10 315
Alkylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane 7 14 98.18 -138 104 0.767
Alkylcyclopentane propylcyclopentane 8 16 112.21 -117 131 0.776
Alkylcyclopentane butylcyclopentane 9 18 126.23 -108 156 0.785
Alkylcyclopentane pentylcyclopentane 10 20 140.26 -83 180 0.791
Alkylcyclopentane hexylcyclopentane 11 22 154.29 -73 206 0.797
Alkylcyclopentane heptylcyclopentane 12 24 168.31 -61 224 0.801
Alkylcyclopentane octylcyclopentane 13 26 182.34 -45 242 0.805
Alkylcyclopentane nonylcyclopentane 14 28 196.36 -29 262 0.808
Alkylcyclopentane decylcyclopentane 15 30 210.39 -22 279 0.811
Alkylcyclohexane Methylcyclohexane Heptanaphthene 7 14 98.18 -127 101 0.770 -4 260
Alkylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane 8 16 112.21 -113 132 0.788 0
Alkylcyclohexane Propylcyclohexane 9 18 126.23 -95 156 0.794 35 248
Alkylcyclohexane butylcyclohexane 10 20 140.26 -75 181 0.790 41 0
Alkylcyclohexane pentylcyclohexane 11 22 154.29 -58 204 0.804 0
Alkylcyclohexane hexylcyclohexane 12 24 168.31 -48 225 0.808
Alkylcyclohexane heptylcyclohexane 13 26 182.34 -40 244 0.811
Alkylcyclohexane octylcyclohexane 14 28 196.36 -20 263 0.814
Alkylcyclohexane nonylcyclohexane 15 30 210.39 -10 281 0.816
Alkylcyclohexane decylcyclohexane 16 32 224.42 -2 298 0.819
Alkylcyclohexane dodecylcyclohexane 18 36 252.47 13 331 0.822
Alkylcyclohexane tetradecylcyclohexane 20 38 278.50 24 358 0.825
Alkylcyclohexane pentadecylcyclohexane 21 42 294.55 25 371 0.827
Alkylcyclohexane octadecylcyclohexane 24 48 336.62 42 409 0.830
Dicycloalkane trans-Decahydronaphthalene trans-Decalin 10 18 138.25 -30 187 0.866 250
Dicycloalkane cis-Decahydronaphthalene cis-Decalin 10 18 138.25 -43 196 0.897 250
Alkylbenzene Benzene Benzol 6 6 78.11 6 80 0.880 -11 555
Alkylbenzene Methylbenzene Toluene, toluol 7 8 92.13 -95 111 0.866 6 535
Alkylbenzene Ethylbenzene Phenylethane 8 10 106.16 -95 136 0.866
Alkylbenzene 1,2-Dimethylbenzene orto-xylene 8 10 106.16 -24 144 0.88 32 463
Alkylbenzene 1,3-Dimethylbenzene meta-xylene 8 10 106.16 -48 139 0.86 27 527
Alkylbenzene 1,4-Dimethylbenzene para-xylene 8 10 106.16 13 138 0.861 27 528
Alkylbenzene Propylbenzene 9 12 120.19 -100 159 0.863 39 450
Alkylbenzene Butylbenzene 10 14 134.21 -88 183 0.860 58 410
Alkylbenzene Pentylbenzene Phenylpentane, amylbenzene 11 16 148.24 -75 205 0.859 66
Alkylbenzene Hexylbenzene Mellitene 12 18 162.26 -63 226 0.858
Alkylbenzene Heptylbenzene 13 20 176.29 -48 242 0.857
Alkylbenzene Octylbenzene 14 22 190.32 -36 263 0.856
Alkylbenzene Nonylbenzene 15 24 204.34 -24 280 0.858
Alkylbenzene Decylbenzene 16 26 218.37 -14 298 0.855
Alkylbenzene Dodecylbenzene 18 30 246.42 -2 329 0.855
Alkylbenzene Tetradecylbenzene 20 34 274.47 10 347 0.855
Alkylbenzene Pentadecylbenzene 21 36 288.50 12 373 0.855
Alkylbenzene Hexadecylbenzene 22 38 302.52 26 385 0.855
Alkylbenzene Heptadecylbenzene 23 40 316.55 20 395 0.855
Alkylbenzene Octadecylbenzene 24 42 330.58 35 400 0.8536
Alkylbenzene Nonadecylbenzene 25 44 344.60 30 419 0.855
Tetrahydro-nahphthalene 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthalene 10 12 132.20 -35 207 0.973 384
Tetrahydro-nahphthalene 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-naphthalene 11 14 146.23 221 0.9583
Tetrahydro-nahphthalene 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-methyl-naphthalene 11 14 146.23 -23 234 0.9720
Tetrahydro-nahphthalene 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-methyl-naphthalene 11 14 146.23 -40 229 0.9537
Tetrahydro-nahphthalene 1-Hexyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthalene 16 24 216.36 305 0.918 146
Diaromatics Naphthalene 10 8 128.16 80 218 1.025 80 540
Diaromatics 1-methylnaphthalene 11 10 142.19 -31 240 1.020 94 485
Diaromatics 1-ethylnaphthalene 12 12 156.22 -14 258 1.008
Diaromatics 1-propylnaphthalene 13 14 170.24 -9 273 0.990
Diaromatics 1-butylnaphthalene 14 16 184.27 -20 288 0.974
Diaromatics 1-pentylnaphthalene 15 18 198.29 -25 305 0.966
Diaromatics 1-hexylnaphthalene 16 20 212.32 -18 322 0.957
Diaromatics 1-nonylnaphthalene 19 26 254.40 8 366 0.937
Diaromatics 1-decylnaphthalene 20 28 268.42 15 379 0.932
Diaromatics 2-methylnaphthalene 11 10 142.19 35 241 1.006 98 488
Diaromatics 2-ethylnaphthalene 12 12 156.22 -7 259 0.992
Diaromatics 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene 12 12 156.22 -3 267 1.018
Diaromatics 1,3-dimethylnaphthalene 12 12 156.22 -6 265 1.014
Diaromatics 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene 12 12 156.22 8 264 1.017
Diaromatics 1,5-dimethylnaphthalene 12 12 156.22 82 267 -
Diaromatics 1,6-dimethylnaphthalene 12 12 156.22 -16 263 1.002
Diaromatics 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene 12 12 156.22 -14 263 1.012
Diaromatics 1,8-dimethylnaphthalene 12 12 156.22 63 276 1.003
Diaromatics 2.3-dimethylnaphthalene 12 12 156.22 104 267 1.003
Diaromatics 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene 12 12 156.22 110 253 1.003
Diaromatics 2.7-dimethylnaphthalene 12 12 156.22 96 262 1.003
Triaromatics Phenanthrene 14 10 178.22 99 338 1.18 171 >450
Triaromatics Anthracene 14 10 178.22 216 341 1.2825
Triaromatics 1-methylanthracene 15 12 192.25 86 342 1.04799
Triaromatics 2-methylanthracene 15 12 192.25 209 340 1.80
Triaromatics 9-methylanthracene 15 12 192.25 82 ~340 1.06599
Tetraaromatics Benzophenanthrene 18 12 228.28 256 448 1.274
Tetraaromatics Chrysene 1,2-Benzophenanthrene 18 12 228.28 255 448 1.274
Tetraaromatics Triphenylene IsoChrysene, 1,2,3,4-Dibenzonaphthalene 18 12 228.28 196 438 1.302
Tetraaromatics Pyrene Benzo(def)phenanthrene 18 12 228.28 156 404 1.21 200
* Note that some of the substances have a melting point above 20°C, and that the given densities then are given for solid state. Superscript notations give measurement temperature(in °C) different from 20°C.




Molecular structure hydrocarbons


Definition of organic compounds

Hydrocarbon: An organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

Main groups of hydrocarbons:

Alkane: An acyclic saturated hydrocarbon, with the general formula CnH2n+2. Also called paraffin.

Alkene: An unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond, with the general formula CnH2n. Also called olefin.

Alkyne: An unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond, with the general formula CnH2n-2. Also called acetylenes.

Cycloalkane: A one-ring (monocyclic) saturated hydrocarbon, with the general formula CnH2n. Also called naphthene.

Cycloalkene: An alkene hydrocarbon which contains a closed ring of carbon atoms, but has no aromatic character, with the general formula CnH2n-2. Also called cycloolefin.

Aromatic hydrocarbon: A cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms. The simplest of the aromatics have 6 carbon atoms and contains 3 double bounds.  A one ring aromatic without any substituents is called benzene, with the formula C6H6.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: hydrocarbon that are composed of multiple aromatic rings. A two ring aromatic without any substituents is called naphthalene, with the formula C10H8.

Some under-groups of hydrocarbons given in this document:

Alkyl: An alkyl group is an alkane substituent missing one hydrogen, with general formula CnH2n+1

Phenyl: An phenyl group is a benzene substituent missing one hydrogen, with general formula C6H5.

2-Methylalkane: A branched alkane, with a methyl group connected to the second carbon atom in the main carbon chain.

3-Methylalkane: A branched alkane, with a methyl group connected to the third carbon atom in the main carbon chain.

2-Methylalkene: A branched alkene, with a methyl group connected to the second carbon atom in the main carbon chain.

Alkylcycklohexane: A monosubstituted cyclohexane with one branching via the attachment of one alkyl group on one carbon of the cyclohexane ring, with the general formula CnH(2n+1)C6H11.

Alkylcycklopentane: A monosubstituted cyclopentane with one branching via the attachment of one alkyl group on one carbon of the cyclohexane ring, with the general formula CnH(2n+1)C5H9.

Alkylbenzene: A monosubstituted benzene with one branching via the attachment of one alkyl group on one carbon of the benzene ring, with the general formula CnH(2n+1)C6H5.

1-alkylnaphthalene: A monosubstituted naphthalene with one branching via the attachment of one alkyl group on one carbon of one of the aromatic rings, with the general formula CnH(2n+1)C10H7.


Related Topics

  • Material Properties - Material properties for gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more
  • Density - Density of different solid materials, liquids and gases. Definitions and convertion calculators.
  • Boiling point - Documents giving boiling point of elements and different kind of chemical species at varying conditions
  • Melting point - freezing point - Documents giving melting or freezing point of elements and different kind of chemical species at varying conditions

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