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Liquids and Fluids - Specific Heats

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The specific heat for some commonly used liquids and fluids is given in the table below.

For conversion of units, use the Specific heat online unit converter.

See also tabulated values of specific heat of gases, food and foodstuffmetals and semimetals, common solids and other common substances as well as values of molar specific heat of  common organic substances and inorganic substances.

Liquids and Fluids - Specific Heats
ProductSpecific Heat
- cp -
(kJ/(kg K))(Btu/(lb oF))
(Kcal/kg oC)
Acetic acid 2.043 0.49
Acetone 2.15 0.51
Alcohol, ethyl 32oF (ethanol) 2.3 0.548
Alcohol, ethyl 104oF (ethanol) 2.72 0.65
Alcohol, methyl. 40 - 50oF 2.47 0.59
Alcohol, methyl. 60 - 70oF 2.51 0.6
Alcohol, propyl 2.37 0.57
Ammonia, 32oF 4.6 1.1
Ammonia, 104oF 4.86 1.16
Ammonia, 176oF 5.4 1.29
Ammonia, 212oF 6.2 1.48
Ammonia, 238oF 6.74 1.61
Aniline 2.18 0.514
Asphalt, liquid 2.09 0.5
Benzene, 60oF 1.8 0.43
Benzene, 150oF 1.92 0.46
Benzine 2.1
Benzol 1.8 0.43
Bismuth, 800oF 0.15 0.0345
Bismuth, 1000oF 0.155 0.0369
Bismuth, 1400oF 0.165 0.0393
Bromine 0.47 0.11
n-Butane, 32oF 2.3 0.55
Calcium Chloride 3.06 0.73
Carbon Disulfide 0.992 0.237
Carbon Tetrachloride 0.866 0.207
Castor Oil 1.8 0.43
Chloroform 1.05 0.251
Citron Oil 1.84 0.44
Decane 2.21 0.528
Diphenylamine 1.93 0.46
Dodecane 2.21 0.528
Dowtherm 1.55 0.37
Ether 2.21 0.528
Ethyl ether 2.22 0.529
Ethylene glycol 2.36 0.56
Dichlorodifluoromethane R-12 saturated -40oF 0.88 0.211
Dichlorodifluoromethane R-12 saturated 0oF 0.91 0.217
Dichlorodifluoromethane R-12 saturated 120oF 1.02 0.244
Fuel Oil min. 1.67 0.4
Fuel Oil max. 2.09 0.5
Gasoline 2.22 0.53
Glycerine 2.43 0.576
Heptane 2.24 0.535
Hexane 2.26 0.54
Hydrochlor acid 3.14
Iodine 2.15 0.51
Kerosene 2.01 0.48
Linseed Oil 1.84 0.44
Light Oil, 60oF 1.8 0.43
Light Oil, 300oF 2.3 0.54
Mercury 0.14 0.03
Methyl alcohol 2.51
Milk 3.93 0.94
Naphthalene 1.72 0.41
Nitric acid 1.72
Nitro benzole 1.52 0.362
Octane 2.15 0.51
Oil, Castor 1.97 0.47
Oil, Olive 1.97 0.47
Oil, mineral 1.67 0.4
Oil, turpentine 1.8
Oil, vegetable 1.67 0.4
Olive oil 1.97 0.47
Paraffin 2.13 0.51
Perchlor ethylene 0.905
Petroleum 2.13 0.51
Petroleum ether 1.76
Phenol 1.43 0.34
Potassium hydrate 3.68 0.88
Propane, 32oF 2.4 0.576
Propylene 2.85 0.68
Propylene Glycol 2.5 0.60
Sesame oil 1.63 0.39
Sodium, 200oF 1.38 0.33
Sodium, 1000oF 1.26 0.3
Sodium hydrate 3.93 0.94
Soya bean oil 1.97 0.47
Sulfuric acid concentrated 1.38
Sulfuric acid 1.34
Toluene 1.72 0.41
Trichlor ethylene 1.30
Tuluol 1.51 0.36
Turpentine 1.72 0.411
Water, fresh 4.19 1
Water, sea 36oF 3.93 0.938
Xylene 1.72 0.41
  • 1 kJ/(kg K) = 1000 J/(kgoC) = 0.2389 kcal/(kg oC) = 0.2389 Btu/(lbm oF)
  • T(oC) = 5/9[T(oF) - 32]

For conversion of units, use the Specific heat online unit converter.

See also tabulated values of specific heat of Gases, Food and foodstuffMetals and semimetalsCommon solids and other Common substances.

Heating Energy

The energy required to heat a product can be calculated as

q = cp m dt                                              (1)


q = heat required (kJ)

cp = specific heat (kJ/kg K, kJ/kg oC)

dt = temperature difference (K, oC)

Example - Required Heat to increase Temperature i Water

10 kg of water is heated from 20 oC to 100 oC - a temperature difference 80 oC (K). The heat required can be calculated as 

q = (4.19 kJ/kg K) (10 kg) (80 oC)

  = 3352 kJ

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