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Solids - Specific Heats

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The specific heat of some commonly used solids is given in the table below.

For conversion of units, use the Specific heat online unit converter.

See also tabulated values of specific heat of gases, food and foodstuffmetals and semimetals, common liquids and fluids and other common substances as well as values of molar heat capacity of  common organic substances and inorganic substances.

Solids - Specific Heats
ProductSpecific Heat
- cp-
(Btu/(lbm oF))
(kcal/(kg oC))
(kJ/(kg K))
Agate 0.19 0.80
Aluminum bronze 0.10 0.44
Aluminum, 0oC 0.21 0.87
Antimony 0.05 0.21
Apatite 0.2 0.84
Arsenic 0.083 0.35
Artificial wool 0.32 1.36
Asbestos cement board 0.2 0.84
Asbestos mill board 0.2 0.84
Ashes 0.2 0.84
Asphalt concrete (with aggregate) 0.22 0.92
Augite 0.19 0.80
Bakelite. wood filler 0.33 1.38
Bakelite. asbestos filler 0.38 1.59
Barite 0.11 0.46
Barium 0.07 0.29
Basalt rock 0.2 0.84
Beeswax 0.82 3.40
Beryl 0.2 0.84
Beryllium 0.24 1.02
Bismuth 0.03 0.13
Boile scale 0.19 0.80
Bone 0.11 0.44
Borax 0.24 1.0
Boron 0.31 1.3
Brass 0.09 0.38
Brick, common 0.22 0.9
Brick, hard 0.24 1
Bronze, phosphor 0.09 0.38
Cadmium 0.06 0.25
Calcite 32 - 100F 0.19 0.8
Calcite 32 - 212F 0.2 0.84
Calcium 0.15 0.63
Calcium carbonat 0.18 0.76
Calcium sulfate 0.27 1.1
Carbon, Diamond 0.12 0.52
Carbon, Graphite 0.17 0.71
Carborundum 0.16 0.67
Cassiterite 0.09 0.38
Cement dry 0.37 1.55
Cement powder 0.2 0.84
Cellulose 0.37 1.6
Celluloid 0.36 1.5
Charcoal 0.24 1
Chalk 0.22 0.9
Chalcopyrite 0.13 0.54
Charcoal, wood 0.24 1
Chromium 0.12 0.5
Clay 0.22 0.92
Coal, anthracite 0.3 1.26
Coal, bituminous 0.33 1.38
Cobalt 0.11 0.46
Coke 0.2 0.85
Concrete, stone 0.18 0.75
Concrete, light 0.23 0.96
Constantan 0.098 0.41
Copper 0.09 0.39
Cork, Corkboard 0.45 1.9
Corundum 0.1 0.42
Cotton 0.32 1.34
Diamond 0.15 0.63
Dolomite rock 0.22 0.92
Duralium 0.22 0.92
Earth, dry 0.3 1.26
Electron 0.24 1.00
Emery 0.23 0.96
Fats 0.46 1.93
Fiberboard, light 0.6 2.5
Fiber hardboard 0.5 2.1
Fire brick 0.25 1.05
Fluorite 0.22 0.92
Fluorspar 0.21 0.88
Galena 0.05 0.21
Garnet 0.18 0.75
Glass 0.2 0.84
Glass, crystal 0.12 0.5
Glass, plate 0.12 0.5
Glass, Pyrex 0.18 0.75
Glass, window 0.2 0.84
Glass-wool 0.16 0.67
Gold 0.03 0.13
Granite 0.19 0.79
Graphite 0.17 0.71
Gypsum 0.26 1.09
Hairfelt 0.5 2.1
Hermatite 0.16 0.67
Hornblende 0.2 0.84
Hypersthene 0.19 0.8
Ice -112oF 0.35 1.47
Ice -40oF 0.43 1.8
Ice -4oF 0.47 1.97
Ice 32oF (0oC) 0.49 2.09
India rubber min 0.27 1.13
India rubber max 0.98 4.1
Ingot iron 0.12 0.49
Iodine 0.052 0.218
Iridium 0.03 0.13
Iron, 20oC 0.11 0.46
Labradorite 0.19 0.8
Lava 0.2 0.84
Limestone 0.217 0.91
Litharge 0.21 0.88
Lead 0.03 0.13
Leather, dry 0.36 1.5
Lithium 0.86 3.58
Magnetite 0.16 0.67
Malachite 0.18 0.75
Manganese 0.11 0.46
Magnesia (85%) 0.2 0.84
Magnesium 0.25 1.05
Marble, mica 0.21 0.88
Mercury 0.03 0.14
Mica 0.12 0.5
Mineral wool blanket 0.2 0.84
Molybdenum 0.065 0.27
Nickel 0.11 0.46
Oliglocose 0.21 0.88
Orthoclose 0.19 0.8
Osmium 0.03 0.13
Oxide of chrome 0.18 0.75
Paper 0.33 1.34
Paraffin wax 0.7 2.9
Peat 0.45 1.88
Phosphorbronze 0.086 0.36
Phosphorus 0.19 0.80
Pig iron, white 0.13 0.54
Pinchbeck 0.09 0.38
Pit coal 0.24 1.02
Plaster, light 0.24 1
Plaster, sand 0.22 0.9
Plastics, foam 0.3 1.3
Plastics, solid 0.4 1.67
Platinum, 0oC 0.032 0.13
Porcelain 0.26 1.07
Potassium 0.13 0.54
Pyrex glass 0.2 0.84
Pyrolusite 0.16 0.67
Pyroxylin plastics 0.36 1.51
Quartz mineral 55 - 212oF 0.19 0.8
Quartz mineral 32oF (0oC) 0.17 0.71
Red lead 0.022 0.09
Red metal 0.09 0.38
Rhenium 0.033 0.14
Rhodium 0.057 0.24
Rock salt 0.22 0.92
Rosin 0.31 1.30
Rubber 0.48 2.01
Rubidium 0.079 0.33
Salt 0.21 0.88
Sand, dry 0.19 0.80
Sandstone 0.22 0.92
Sawdust 0.21 0.9
Selenium 0.078 0.33
Serpentine 0.26 1.09
Silica aerogel 0.2 0.84
Silicon 0.18 0.75
Silicon, carbide 0.16 0.67
Silk 0.33 1.38
Silver, 20oC 0.056 0.23
Slate 0.18 0.76
Sodium 0.3 1.26
Soil, dry 0.19 0.80
Soil, wet 0.35 1.48
Steatite 0.2 0.83
Steel 0.12 0.49
Stone 0.2 0.84
Stoneware 0.19 0.8
Sulphur, sulfur 0.17 0.71
Tantalium 0.033 0.14
Tar 0.35 1.47
Tellurium 0.05 0.21
Thorium 0.033 0.14
Tile hollow 0.15 0.63
Timber, see wood
Tin 0.057 0.24
Titanium 0.11 0.47
Topaz 0.21 0.88
Tungsten 0.03 0.134
Uranium 0.028 0.12
Vanadium 0.12 0.5
Vermiculite 0.2 0.84
Vulcanite 0.33 1.38
Wax 0.82 3.43
Welding iron 0.12 0.52
White metal 0.035 0.15
Wood, balsa 0.7 2.9
Wood, oak 0.48 2
Wood, white pine 0.6 2.5
Wool, loose 0.3 1.26
Wool, felt 0.33 1.38
Zinc 0.09 0.38
  • 1 Btu/lbmoF = 4.187 kJ/kg K = 1 kcal/kgoC
  • T (oC) = 5/9[T (oF) - 32]
  • T (oF) = [T (oC)](9/5) + 32

For conversion of units, use the Specific heat online unit converter.

See also tabulated values of specific heat of gases, food and foodstuffmetals and semimetals, common liquids and fluids and other common substances as well as values of molar heat capacity of  common organic substances and inorganic substances.

Heating Energy

The energy required to heat a product can be calculated as

q = cp m dt                                              (1)

where

q = heat required (kJ)

cp = specific heat (kJ/kg K, kJ/kg oC)

dt = temperature difference (K, oC)

Example - Required Heat to increase the Temperature in a Piece of Oak

If 10 kg of oak is heated from 20 oC to 50 oC - a temperature difference 30 oC (K), the heat required can be calculated as 

q = (2 kJ/kg K) (10 kg) (30 oC)

  = 600 kJ

If one hour (3600 s) is used to heat the oak - the power required can be calculated with the equation

P = q / t                                         (2)

where

P = power (kJ/s, kW)

t = time (s)

With values:

P = (600 kJ) / (3600 s)

   = 0.17 kW

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