Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

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# Heating Up Applications - Energy Required and Heat Transfer Rates

The energy required to heat up a substance - like a tank, swimming pool or similar - within a certain time can be calculated as

q = m cp dT / t                     (1)

where

q = mean heat transfer rate (kW)

m = mass of substance (kg)

cp = specific heat of the substance (kJ/kg oC)

dT = temperature difference (oC)

t = heat up time (s)

Note that heat loss to the surroundings will extend the heat up time.

### Example - Heating up an Aluminum Saucepan filled with Cold Water

An aluminum saucepan with weight 2 kg is filled with 10 liter cold water with temperature 0 oC and heated to temperature 100oC (boiling) in one hour. The heat transfer rate (or required power) can be calculated as

q = [( (10 liter) (1 kg/liter) (4.2 kJ/kgoC) + (2 kg) (0.91 kJ/kgoC) ) ( (100 oC) - (0 oC) )] / [(1 h) 3600 (s/h)]

=  1.2 kW

The energy consumed can be calculated as

E = q t                              (2)

where

E = energy (kJ, kWs)

t = time (h)

- or, with values

E = (1.2 kW) (1 h)

= 1.2 kWh

## Related Topics

### • Thermodynamics

Work, heat and energy systems.

## Related Documents

### Carnot Efficiency

The efficiency of the Carnot cycle.

### Cooling Load - Latent and Sensible Heat

Latent and sensible cooling loads to consider when designing HVAC systems.

### Electric Heating of Mass

Electric heating of an object or mass - temperature change vs. energy supplied.

### Energy Transfer Equation

Fluid energy transfer.

### Heat, Work and Energy

Heat vs. work vs. energy.

### Heating System Flow Rates

Calculate flow rates in heating systems.

### Heating Systems - Steam and Condensate Loads

Calculating steam and condensate loads in steam heated systems.

### Hot Water Heating Systems - Online Design Application

Free online design tool for designing hot water heating systems - metric units.

### Hot Water Heating Systems - Online Design Application, Imperial Units

Online design tool for hot water heating systems.

### Liquids and Fluids - Specific Heats

Specific heats for some common liquids and fluids - acetone, oil, paraffin, water and many more.

### Specific Heat of common Substances

Specific heat of products like wet mud, granite, sandy clay, quartz sand and more.

### Steam Heating Processes - Load Calculating

Calculating the amount of steam in non-flow batch and continuous flow heating processes.

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