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Timber - Mechanical Properties

Wood - density, fibre stress, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity

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WoodDensity
ρ -
(kg/m3)
Fibre Stress at Elastic Limit
- σy -
(MPa)

Modulus of Elasticity
- E -
(GPa)
Compressive Strength parallel to Grain
- σ -
(MPa)

Shear Strength
- τ -
(MPa)

Ash 657 60 10.1 48 10
Beech 740 60 - 110 10.4 27 - 54 8.3 - 14
Birch 710 85 - 90 15.2 67 - 74 13 - 18.5
Elm, English 560 40 - 54 11.8 17 - 32 8 - 11.3
Elm, Dutch 560 42 - 60 7.7 18 - 32 7.2 - 10
Fir, Douglas 530 45 - 73 10.3 - 15.1 49 - 74 7.4 - 8.8
Mahogany 545 60 8.7 45 6.0
Oak 740 56 - 87 14.6 27 - 50 8 - 12
Pine 530 41 - 83 8.6 - 10.3 21 - 42 5.2 - 9.7
Poplar 450 40 - 43 7.2 20 4.8
Spruce, Norway 430 36  - 62 7.4 - 8.6 18 - 39 4.3 - 8
Sycamore 625 62 - 106 9 - 13.5 26 - 46 8.8 - 15
  • 1 MPa = 106 Pa
  • 1 GPa = 109 Pa
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