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Wood, Panel and Structural Timber Products - Mechanical Properties

Density, fibre stress, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of clear wood, panel and structural timber products

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Clear Wood

WoodDensity
ρ -
(kg/m3)
Fibre Stress at Elastic Limit
- σy -
(MPa)

Modulus of Elasticity
- E -
(GPa)
Compressive Strength parallel to Grain
- σ -
(MPa)

Shear Strength parallel to grain
- τ -
(MPa)

Alder, red 410 68 9.5 40.1 7.4
Ash - Black, Blue, Green, Oregon, White 490 - 600 87 - 103 9.4 - 12 41.2 - 51.1 10.8 - 14
Aspen - Bigtooth, Quaking 390 63 9.9 36.5 7.4
Baldcypress 460 73 9.9 43.9 6.9
Baswood, American 370 60 10.1 32.6 6.9
Beech, American 640 103 11.9 50.3 13.9
Birch - Paper, Sweet, Yellow 550 - 620 85 - 114 11 - 15 39.2 - 58.9 8.3 - 15.4
Butternut 380 56 8.1 36.2 8.1
Cedar - Atlantic White, Eastern Red, Incence, Northern White, Port-Orford, Western Red, Yellow 310 - 470 45 - 88 5.5 - 11.7 27.3 - 43.5 5.5 - 9.4
Cherry, black 500 85 10.3 49 11.7
Chestnut, American 430 59 8.5 36.7 7.4
Cottonwood - Balam Poplar, Black, Eastern 310 - 400 27 - 59 7.6 - 9.4 27.7 - 33.9 5.4 - 7.2
Douglas-fir - Coast, Inerior West, Interior North, Interior South 460 - 500 82 - 90 10.3 - 13.4 43.1 - 51.2 7.8 - 10.4
Elm, English 560 40 - 54 11.8 17 - 32 8 - 11.3
Elm, Dutch 560 42 - 60 7.7 18 - 32 7.2 - 10
Fir 320 - 430 61.4 - 75.8 8.9 - 11.9 33.5 - 44.2 6.2 - 8.4
Hackberry 530 76 8.2 37.5 11
Hemlock - Eastern, Mountain, Western 400 - 450 61 - 79 8.3 - 11.3 37.3 - 49 7.3 - 10.6
Hickory, pecan - Bitternut, Nutmeg, Pecan, Water 600 - 660 94 - 123 11.7 - 13.9 47.6 - 62.3 14.3
Hickory, true - Mockernut, Pignut, Shagbark, Shellbark 690 - 720 125 - 139 14.9 - 15.6 55.2 - 63.5 12 - 16.8
Honeylocust 101 11.2 51.7 15.5
Larch, Western 520 90 12.9 52.5
Locust, black 690 134 14.1 70.2 17.1
Magnolia - Cucumbertree, Southern 480 - 500 77 - 85 9.7 - 12.5 37.6 - 43.5 9.2 - 10.5
Mahogany 545 60 8.7 45 6.0
Maple - Bigleaf, Black, Red, Silver, Sugar 480 - 630 61 - 109 7.9 - 12.6 36 - 54 11.9 - 16.1
Oak, red - Black, Cherrybark, laurel, Northern Red, Pin, Scarlet, Southern Red, Water, Willow 590 - 690 75 - 125 10.3 - 13.1 42 - 60.3 9.6 - 14.3
Oak, white - Bur, Chestnut, Live, Overcup, Post, Swamp Chestnut, Swamp White, White 640 - 880 71 - 127 7.1 - 13.7 41.8 - 61.4 10.3 - 13.8
Pine - Eastern White, Jack, Loblolly, Lodgepole, Longleaf, Pitch 350 - 590 59 - 100 8.5 - 13.7 33.1 - 49.2 6.1 - 10.4
Poplar, Yellow 420 70 10.9 38.2 8.2
Sassafras 460 62 7.7 32.8 8.5
Spruce - Black, Engelmann, Red, Sitka, White, Norway 350 - 430 63 - 79 7.9 - 11 37 - 44 6.8 - 9.2
Sweetgum 520 86 11.3 43.6 11
Sycamore, American 490 69 9.8 37.1 10.1
Tupelo - Black, Water 500 66 8.3 - 8.7 38.1 - 40.8 9.2 - 11
Walnut, black 550 101 11.6 52.3 9.4
Willow, black 390 54 7 28.3 8.6

Panel Products

PanelDensity
ρ -
(kg/m3)
Fibre Stress at Elastic Limit
- σy -
(MPa)

Modulus of Elasticity
- E -
(GPa)
Hardboard 900 - 1000 31 - 56 3.1 - 5.5
MDF - Medium Density Fiberboard 700 - 900 36 3.6
Particleboard 600 - 800 15 - 24 2.8 - 4.1
OSB - Oriented Strandboard 500 - 800 22 - 35 4.4 - 6.3
Plywood 400 - 600 34 - 43 7 - 8.6

Structural Timber Products

Structural TimberDensity
ρ -
(kg/m3)
Fibre Stress at Elastic Limit
- σy -
(MPa)

Modulus of Elasticity
- E -
(GPa)
Glued-laminated Timber 400 - 600 29 - 63 9 - 14.5
Laminated Veneer Lumber 400 - 700 34 - 86 9 - 19
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  • Engineering ToolBox, (2011). Wood, Panel and Structural Timber Products - Mechanical Properties. [online] Available at: https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/timber-mechanical-properties-d_1789.html [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

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