# Modulus of Elasticity - Young Modulus for some common Materials

## Young Modulus (Tensile Modulus) - Elastic Properties - for some common materials - steel, glass, wood and more

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To describe elastic properties of linear objects like wires, rods, or columns which are stretched or compressed, a convenient parameter is the ratio of the stress to the strain, a parameter called the

"*Young's modulus*" or "*Modulus of Elasticity*"

of the material.

- Young's modulus can be used to predict the elongation or compression of an object as long as the stress is less than the yield strength of the material

Material | Young's Modulus (Modulus of Elasticity) - E - | Ultimate Tensile Strength - S_{u} -(10^{6} N/m^{2}, MPa) | Yield Strength - S_{y} -(10^{6} N/m^{2}, MPa) | |
---|---|---|---|---|

(10^{6 } psi) | (10^{9} N/m^{2}, GPa) | |||

ABS plastics | 1.4 - 3.1 | 40 | ||

Acetals | 2.8 | 65 | ||

Acrylic | 3.2 | 70 | ||

Aluminium Bronze | 120 | |||

Aluminum | 10.0 | 69 | 110 | 95 |

Aluminum Alloys | 10.2 | |||

Antimony | 11.3 | |||

Aramid | 70 - 112 | |||

Beryllium (Be) | 42 | 287 | ||

Beryllium Copper | 18.0 | |||

Bismuth | 4.6 | |||

Bone, compact | 18 | 170 (compression) | ||

Bone, spongy | 76 | |||

Boron | 3100 | |||

Brass | 102 - 125 | 250 | ||

Brass, Naval | 100 | |||

Bronze | 96 - 120 | |||

CAB | 0.8 | |||

Cadmium | 4.6 | |||

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic | 150 | |||

Carbon nanotube, single-walled | 1000+ | |||

Cast Iron 4.5% C, ASTM A-48 | 170 | |||

Cellulose, cotton, wood pulp and regenerated | 80 - 240 | |||

Cellulose acetate, moulded | 12 - 58 | |||

Cellulose acetate, sheet | 30 - 52 | |||

Cellulose nitrate, celluloid | 50 | |||

Chlorinated polyether | 1.1 | 39 | ||

Chlorintated PVC (CPVC) | 2.9 | |||

Chromium | 36 | |||

Cobalt | 30 | |||

Concrete | 17 | |||

Concrete, High Strength (compression) | 30 | 40 (compression) | ||

Copper | 17 | 117 | 220 | 70 |

Diamond (C) | 1220 | |||

Douglas fir Wood | 13 | 50 (compression) | ||

Epoxy resins | 3-2 | 26 - 85 | ||

Fiberboard, Medium Density | 4 | |||

Flax fiber | 58 | |||

Glass | 50 - 90 | 50 (compression) | ||

Glass reinforced polyester matrix | 17 | |||

Gold | 10.8 | 74 | ||

Granite | 52 | |||

Graphene | 1000 | |||

Grey Cast Iron | 130 | |||

Hemp fiber | 35 | |||

Inconel | 31 | |||

Iridium | 75 | |||

Iron | 28.5 | 210 | ||

Lead | 2.0 | |||

Magnesium metal (Mg) | 6.4 | 45 | ||

Manganese | 23 | |||

Marble | 15 | |||

MDF - Medium-density fiberboard | 4 | |||

Mercury | ||||

Molybdenum (Mo) | 40 | 329 | ||

Monel Metal | 26 | |||

Nickel | 31 | 170 | ||

Nickel Silver | 18.5 | |||

Nickel Steel | 29 | |||

Niobium (Columbium) | 15 | |||

Nylon-6 | 2 - 4 | 45 - 90 | 45 | |

Nylon-66 | 60 - 80 | |||

Oak Wood (along grain) | 11 | |||

Osmium (Os) | 80 | 550 | ||

Phenolic cast resins | 33 - 59 | |||

Phenol-formaldehyde moulding compounds | 45 - 52 | |||

Phosphor Bronze | 116 | |||

Pine Wood (along grain) | 9 | 40 | ||

Platinum | 21.3 | |||

Plutonium | 14 | 97 | ||

Polyacrylonitrile, fibres | 200 | |||

Polybenzoxazole | 3.5 | |||

Polycarbonates | 2.6 | 52 - 62 | ||

Polyethylene HDPE (high density) | 0.8 | 15 | ||

Polyethylene Terephthalate, PET | 2 - 2.7 | 55 | ||

Polyimide | 2.5 | 85 | ||

Polyisoprene, hard rubber | 39 | |||

Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) | 2.4 - 3.4 | |||

Polyimide aromatics | 3.1 | 68 | ||

Polypropylene, PP | 1.5 - 2 | 28 - 36 | ||

Polystyrene, PS | 3 - 3.5 | 30 - 100 | ||

Polytehylene, LDPE (low density) | 0.11 - 0.45 | |||

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) | 0.4 | |||

Polyurethane cast liquid | 10 - 20 | |||

Polyurethane elastomer | 29 - 55 | |||

Polyvinylchloride (PVC) | 2.4 - 4.1 | |||

Potassium | ||||

Rhodium | 42 | |||

Rubber, small strain | 0.01 - 0.1 | |||

Sapphire | 435 | |||

Selenium | 8.4 | |||

Silicon | 16 | 130 - 185 | ||

Silicon Carbide | 450 | 3440 | ||

Silver | 10.5 | |||

Sodium | ||||

Steel, High Strength Alloy ASTM A-514 | 760 | 690 | ||

Steel, stainless AISI 302 | 180 | 860 | 502 | |

Steel, Structural ASTM-A36 | 200 | 400 | 250 | |

Tantalum | 27 | |||

Teflon. PTFE | 0.5 | |||

Thorium | 8.5 | |||

Tin | 47 | |||

Titanium | 16 | |||

Titanium Alloy | 105 - 120 | 900 | 730 | |

Tooth enamel | 83 | |||

Tungsten (W) | 400 - 410 | |||

Tungsten Carbide (WC) | 450 - 650 | |||

Uranium | 24 | 170 | ||

Vanadium | 19 | |||

Wrought Iron | 190 - 210 | |||

Zinc | 12 |

*1 N/m*^{2}= 1x10^{-6}N/mm^{2}= 1 Pa = 1.4504x10^{-4}psi*1 psi (lb/in*^{2}) = 144 psf (lb_{f}/ft^{2}) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m^{2}) = 6.895x10^{-3}N/mm^{2}

Note! Use the pressure unit converter on this page to switch the values to other units.

### Strain

Strain is "deformation of a solid due to stress" - change in dimension divided by the original value of the dimension - and can be expressed as

ε= dL / L(1)

where

ε= strain(m/m) (in/in)

dL= elongation or compression (offset) of the object (m) (in)

L= length of the object (m) (in)

### Stress

Stress is force per unit area and can be expressed as

σ = F / A(2)

where

σ =stress(N/m^{2}) (lb/in^{2}, psi)

F= force (N) (lb)

A= area of object (m^{2}) (in^{2})

*tensile stress*- stress that tends to stretch or lengthen the material - acts normal to the stressed area*compressive stress*- stress that tends to compress or shorten the material - acts normal to the stressed area*shearing stress*- stress that tends to shear the material - acts in plane to the stressed area at right-angles to compressive or tensile stress

### Young's Modulus (Tensile Modulus)

Young's modulus or Tensile modulus can be expressed as

E = stress / strain = (F / A) / (dL / L)(3)

where

E = Young's modulus (N/m^{2}) (lb/in^{2}, psi)

### Elasticity

Elasticity is a property of an object or material which will restore it to its original shape after distortion.

A spring is an example of an elastic object - when stretched, it exerts a restoring force which tends to bring it back to its original length. This restoring force is in general proportional to the stretch described by Hooke's Law.

### Hooke's Law

One of the properties of elasticity is that it takes about twice as much force to stretch a spring twice as far. That linear dependence of displacement upon stretching force is called Hooke's law which can be expressed as

F_{s}= -k dL(4)

where

F_{s}= force in the spring (N)

k= spring constant (N/m)

dL= elongation of the spring (m)

### Yield strength

Yield strength, or the yield point, is defined in engineering as the amount of stress that a material can undergo before moving from elastic deformation into plastic deformation.

### Ultimate Tensile Strength

The Ultimate Tensile Strength -* UTS *- of a material is the limit stress at which the material actually breaks, with sudden release of the stored elastic energy.

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