# Stress

## Stress is force applied on cross-sectional area

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Stress is the ratio between *applied force* and *cross-sectional area* where the aplied force is acting - and can be expressed as

σ = F / A (1)

where

σ = stress (N/m^{2}, Pa, psi)

F = applied force (N, lb)

A = cross-sectional area (m^{2}, in^{2})

### Example - Stress in Column

A *10000 N* force is acting on a British Universal Column UB 152 x 89 x 16 with cross sectional area *20.3 cm ^{2}.* The stress in the column can be calculated as

*σ = ( 10000 N) / ((20.3 cm^{2}) (0.0001 m^{2}/cm^{2}) *

* = 4926108 Pa*

* = 4.9 MPa *

The Yield strength - the amount of stress that a material can undergo before moving from elastic deformation into plastic deformation - is typical 250 MPa for steel.

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