Engineering Materials

Comparing some typical properties of common engineering materials like steel, plastics, ceramics and composites

Composites

Material Density
- ρ -
(103 kg/m3)
Tensile Modulus
- E -
(GPa)
Tensile Strength
- σ -
(GPa)
Specific Modulus
- E/ρ -
Specific Strength
- σ/ρ -
Maximum Service Temperature
(oC)
Short-fiber
Glass-filled epoxy (35%) 1.9 25 0.3 8.26 0.16 80 - 200
Glass-filled polyester (35%) 2.0 15.7 0.13 7.25 0.065 80 - 125
Glass-filled nylon (35%) 1.6 14.5 0.2 8.95 0.12 75 - 110
Unidirectional
S-glass epoxy (45%) 1.8 39.5 0.87 21.8 0.48 80 - 215
Carbon epoxy (61%) 1.6 142 1.73 89.3 1.08 80 - 215
Kevlar epoxy (53%) 1.35 63.6 1.1 47.1 0.81 80 - 215

Metals

Material Density
- ρ -
(103 kg/m3)
Tensile Modulus
- E -
(GPa)
Tensile Strength
- σ -
(GPa)
Specific Modulus
- E/ρ -
Specific Strength
- σ/ρ -
Maximum Service Temperature
(oC)
Cast Iron, grade 20 7.15 100 0.14 14.3 0.02 230 - 300
Steel, AISI 1045 7.7 - 8.03 205 0.585 26.3 0.073 500 - 650
Aluminum 2045-T4 2.7 73 0.45 27 0.17 150 - 250
Aluminum 6061-T6 2.7 69 0.27 25.5 0.10 150 - 250

Ceramics

Material Density
- ρ -
(103 kg/m3)
Tensile Modulus
- E -
(GPa)
Tensile Strength
- σ -
(GPa)
Specific Modulus
- E/ρ -
Specific Strength
- σ/ρ -
Maximum Service Temperature
(oC)
Alumina 3.8 350 0.17 92.1 0.045 1425 - 1540
MgO 3.6 205 0.06 56.9 0.017 900 - 1000

Plastics

Material Density
- ρ -
(103 kg/m3)
Tensile Modulus
- E -
(GPa)
Tensile Strength
- σ -
(GPa)
Specific Modulus
- E/ρ -
Specific Strength
- σ/ρ -
Maximum Service Temperature
(oC)
Nylon 6/6 1.15 2 - 3.6 0.082 2.52 0.071 75 - 100
Polyethylene (HDPE) 0.9 - 1.4 0.18 - 1.6 0.015
Polypropylene 0.9 - 1.24 1.4 0.033 1.55 0.037 50 - 80
Epoxy 1.25 3.5 0.069 2.8 0.055 80 - 215
Phenolic 1.35 3.0 0.006 2.22 0.004 70 - 120

Related Topics

  • Mechanics - Kinematics, forces, vectors, motion, momentum, energy and the dynamics of objects
  • Material Properties - Material properties - density, heat capacity, viscosity and more - for gases, fluids and solids
  • Statics - Loads - force and torque

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