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Geological Time Scale

Geological periods

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Periode - EpochBeginning - End
(106 years)
Cenozoic era
Quaternary Holocene 0 - 0.0115
Pleistocene 0.0115 - 1.81 Homo erectus - the evolution of anatomically modern humans
Tertiary Pliocene 1.81 - 5.3 The first recognizable hominins, the australopithecines, appeared
Mioscene 5.3 - 23 Origin of grass
Oligoscene 23 - 34 Rise of cats, dogs, pigs
Eoscene 34 - 56 Hoofed animals
Paleoscene 56 - 65 Primates
Mesozoic era Cretaceous 645 - 145 Demise of dinosaurs
Jurassic 145 - 200 First birds
Triassic 200 - 251 Many major groups of dinosaurs emerged
Paleozoic era Permian 251 - 299 Flowers, insect polination
Carboniferous 299 - 359 First conifers
Devonian 359 - 416 First vertebrates ashore
Silurian 416 - 444 Spore-bearing plants
Ordovician 444 - 488 Vertebrates appear
Cambrian 488 - 542 Most animal life aquatic
Pre-Cambrian Pre-cambrian III (Proterozoic) 542 - 2500  The first advanced single-celled, eukaryotes and multi-cellular life, first plant, jellyfish
Pre-Cambrian II (Archean) 2500 - 3850 Photosyntetic bacteria
Pre-Cambrian I (Hadean) 3850 - 4600 Earth formed 4600 million years ago
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