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# Pipe and Tube System Components - Minor (Dynamic) Loss Coefficients

## Minor loss coefficients for components used in pipe and tube systems.

Minor or dynamic pressure loss in pipe or tube system components can be expressed as

Δpminor_loss = ξ ρf v2 / 2                            (1)

where

Δpminor_loss = minor pressure loss (Pa (N/m2), psf (lb/ft2))

ρf = density of fluid (kg/m3, slugs/ft3)

v = flow velocity (m/s, ft/s)

Minor loss coefficients for commonly used pipe and tube system components:

Type of Component or FittingMinor Loss Coefficient
- ξ -
Tee, Flanged, Dividing Line Flow 0.2
Tee, Threaded, Dividing Line Flow 0.9
Tee, Flanged, Dividing Branched Flow 1.0
Tee, Threaded , Dividing Branch Flow 2.0
Elbow, Flanged Regular 90o 0.3
Elbow, Flanged Long Radius 90o 0.2
Elbow, Flanged Long Radius 45o 0.2
Return Bend, Flanged 180o 0.2
Globe Valve, Fully Open 10
Angle Valve, Fully Open 2
Gate Valve, Fully Open 0.15
Gate Valve, 1/4 Closed 0.26
Gate Valve, 1/2 Closed 2.1
Gate Valve, 3/4 Closed 17
Swing Check Valve, Forward Flow 2
Ball Valve, Fully Open 0.05
Ball Valve, 1/3 Closed 5.5
Ball Valve, 2/3 Closed 200
Diaphragm Valve, Open 2.3
Diaphragm Valve, Half Open 4.3
Diaphragm Valve, 1/4 Open 21
Water meter 7

### Example - Minor Dynamic Pressure Loss in Waterflow a Ball Valve 1/3 Closed

The minor loss a ball valve with flow velocity 2 m/s with water with density 1000 kg/m3 can be calculated as

Δpminor_loss = (5.5) (1000 kg/m3 (2 m/s)2 / 2

= 11000 Pa

= 11 kPa

## Related Topics

• Fluid Mechanics - The study of fluids - liquids and gases. Involving velocity, pressure, density and temperature as functions of space and time.
• Fluid Flow and Pressure Loss - Pipe lines - fluid flow and pressure loss - water, sewer, steel pipes, pvc pipes, copper tubes and more.

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Temperature

oC
oF

Length

m
km
in
ft
yards
miles
naut miles

Area

m2
km2
in2
ft2
miles2
acres

Volume

m3
liters
in3
ft3
us gal

Weight

kgf
N
lbf

Velocity

m/s
km/h
ft/min
ft/s
mph
knots

Pressure

Pa (N/m2)
bar
mm H2O
kg/cm2
psi
inches H2O

Flow

m3/s
m3/h
US gpm
cfm

2 6