l = length of duct or pipe (m)
d h = hydraulic diameter (m)
v = flow velocity (m/s, ft/s)
g = acceleration of gravity (m/s 2 , ft/s 2 )
Note! - the head unit is with reference to the density of the flowing fluid. For other units - like mm Water Column - check Velocity Pressure Head .
Minor head loss can be expressed as:
h minor_loss = ξ v 2 / 2 g (3)
ξ = minor loss coefficient
Since the velocity - v - in equation (2) in general is related to the pipe or duct where the component is located, the sum of the minor losses in a pipe or duct can be expressed as:
Σ h minor_losses = Σ ξ (v 2 / 2 g) (4)
The minor loss can be calculated by summarizing the minor loss coefficients - and multiplying the sum with the dynamic pressure head.
The total head loss for a single pipe can be calculated by using equation (1) and (3) :
h loss_single = λ (l / d h ) (v 2 / 2 g) + Σ ξ v 2 / 2 g (5)
h loss_single = (λ (l / d h ) + Σ ξ ) (v 2 / 2 g) (6)
The total head loss in several serial connected pipes can be calculated by adding the total head loss in each pipe or duct. The total head loss can be expressed as:
h loss_serial = Σ [(λ 1 (l 1 / d h1 ) + Σ ξ 1 ) (v 1 2 / 2 g) + .. + λ n (l n / d hn ) + Σ ξ n ) (v n 2 / 2 g)] (7)
for 1 to n serial connected pipes
Pipe lines - fluid flow and pressure loss - water, sewer, steel pipes, pvc pipes, copper tubes and more.
The study of fluids - liquids and gases. Involving velocity, pressure, density and temperature as functions of space and time.
Minor pressure and head loss in pipes vs. equivalent length in tubes and duct systems.
Calculate hydraulic diameter for pipes and ducts.
Minor loss coefficients for components used in pipe and tube systems.
Static pressure graphical presentation throughout a fluid flow system.
Calculate pressure loss in pipes connected in series or parallel.
Pressure vs. head units - like lb/in2, atm, inches mercury, bars, Pa and more.
Converting head (ft or m) to pressure (psi or bar, kg/cm2) and vice versa.
The energy equation can be used to calculate the head rise in pumps and fans.
Velocity head can be used to calculate minor pressure or head loss in fluid flow systems.
Dynamic pressure or velocity head.
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