• Particle Sizes
A pipeline transport system may under certain circumstances be nearly self cleaning. When a solid settle the pipe area decrease - and fluid speed increase - until a state of equilibrium where the speed is so high that settling is avoided.
Sludges with solid content less than 2 percent have hydraulic characteristics similar to water. For solids contents greater than 2 percent the friction losses are from 1.5 - 4 times the friction losses for water.
The speed should be increased in lifting lines by decreasing the piping diameter. At the end of a pipeline the speed should be slowed down by increasing the pipeline diameter.
The required slope for self cleaning of sludge pipe lines can be estimated as
Smin = τmin / (ρ Rh) (1)
Smin = minimum slope for self cleaning (m/m)
τmin = required shear stress for self cleaning (kg/m2) - (0.25 kg/m2 for slugde waste water, 0.15 kg/m2 for rain water)
ρ = density of fluid (kg/m3)
Rh = hydraulic diameter at maximum flow (m)
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