# Fluid Flow and Pressure Drop

## Pipe lines - fluid flow and pressure loss - water, sewer, steel pipes, pvc pipes, copper tubes and more

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### Absolute, Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Dynamic, absolute and kinematic viscosity - and how to convert between *CentiStokes (cSt), centipoises (cP), Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU) and degree Engler*

### Boiling Fluids - Recommended Suction Flow Velocities

Recommended pump suction flow velocities for boiling fluids

### Boiling Liquids - Pumping Flow Velocities

Recommended flow velocity required on the delivery side of a pump in a system with boiling liquids

### CTS CPVC Tubes - Friction Loss and Flow Velocity

Friction loss and flow velocity for CTS (Copper Tube Size) CPVC pipe

### Capacities of Sewer Pipes

Carrying capacity of sewer and wastewater pipes - *gpm and liter per second*

### Comparing Friction Loss in Steel, Copper and Plastic Pipes

Water flow and friction head loss *(ft/100 ft) *- steel, copper and PVC plastic pipes

### Comparing Secondary Coolants

Specific gravity, freezing points and viscosity for secondary coolants like calcium chloride, sodium chloride, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol

### Copper Tube and Heat Carrying Capacity

Hot water heat carrying capacities in copper tubes type L

### Darcy-Weisbach Equation for Pressure and Head Loss

The Darcy-Weisbach formula can be used to calculate pressure or head loss due to friction in ducts, pipes and tubes

### Download ANSI, American National Standards Institute, Standards

ANSI is a private, not-for-profit, membership organization that acts not as a standards developer, but as a standards coordinating and approval body

### Equation of Continuity

The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation

### Equation of Mechanical Energy and Bernoulli

The mechanical energy equations in terms of Energy per Unit Mass, Energy per Unit Volume and Energy per Unit Weight involving head

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### Equivalent Length Copper Pipe Fittings

Equivalent length in feet of straight pipe for copper pipe fittings

### Equivalent Pipe Length Method - Calculating Pressure Loss in Piping Systems

Calculating pressure loss in piping systems with the Equivalent Pipe Length Method

### Flow Units Converter

Convert between volume flow units - *gpm, liter/sec, cfm, m ^{3}/h* - an online flow unit calculator

### Fluid Velocities in Pipes

Liquids, gases and vapors - suggested fluid velocities

### Friction Loss Pressfit Pipes

Pressfit piping and water friction loss

### Friction Loss Viscous Liquids

Friction loss in steel pipes - viscosities ranging *32 - 80000 SSU*

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### Friction Loss Viscous Liquids

Friction loss in schedule 40 steel pipe with viscous liquids with viscosity from water to 1500 SSU

### Gas Carrying Capacities House Piping

Carrying capacities in gas pipes - imperial and metric units

### Hazen-Williams Equation - calculating Friction Head Loss in Water Pipes

Friction head loss (*ft _{H2O} per 100 ft pipe*) in water pipes can be estimated by using the empirical Hazen-Williams equation

### Heating Systems and Steel Pipes - Pressure Loss Diagram

Steel pipes and tubes - pressure loss diagram for hot water heating systems

### Hydraulic Diameter

Hydraulic diameter of ducts and tubes

### LPG Pipeline Pressure Drop

Resistance in liquid LPG pipes

### Light Oils - Pumping Flow Velocities

Recommended flow velocity required for light oil systems on the delivery side of the pump

### Light Oils - Suction Flow Velocities

Recommended pump suction flow velocity for light oils

### Lined Pipes - Pressure Loss Diagram

Pressure drop diagrams for PTFE, PP, PFA and PVDF-lined pipes

### Liquids - Densities

Densities of some common liquids - acetone, beer, oil, water and more

### Liquids - Specific Gravities

Specific gravity of some common liquids and fluids as alcohol, oils, benzene, water and many more

### Low Pressure Gas Pipe Sizing

Apartments gas pipe service lines

### Major loss in Ducts, Tubes and Pipes

Major loss - head loss or pressure loss - due to friction in ducts, pipes and tubes

### Minor Loss Coefficients in Pipes and Tubes Components

Minor loss coefficients for common used components in pipe and tube systems

### Minor Loss in Pipe or Duct Components

Minor loss, pressure or head loss in pipe, tube and duct system components

### Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - metric values

### Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing pipes with natural gas - for pressure above* 5 psi (35 kPa)*

### Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - imperial units

### Oil Pipes - Recommended Flow Velocities

Flow velocities in oil pipes should be kept within certain limits

### Online Fluid Flow Calculator

For laminar and turbulent flow

### PE - PolyEthylene Pipes, Flow and Pressure Loss

Water flow in SDR pressure rated PE-pipes - pressure loss and velocities - Imperial and SI units

### PE, PEH or PVC Pipes - Pressure Drop Diagram

Pressure drop *(bar/100 m)* and velocy in PE, PEH or PVC pipes

### PVC - Equivalent Length Friction Loss in Fittings

Minor loss for PVC and CPVC fittings in equivalent length of straight pipe

### PVC Pipe Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagram

Friction loss *(psi/100 ft)* and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40

### PVC Pipes - Friction Loss and Flow Velocity - Schedule 40

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 40 - friction loss *(ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft)* and flow velocities at dimensions from 1/2 inch to 16 inches

### PVC Pipes - Friction Loss and Flow Velocity - Schedule 80

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 80 - friction loss *(ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft)* and flow velocities at dimensions from 1/2 inch to 16 inches

### Pipe Fluid Flow Velocity

Calculate fluid flow and pipe velocity

### Plastic Pipes - Friction Head Loss

Friction head loss (ft/100 ft) in plastic pipes - PVC, PP, PE, PEH

### Pneumatic Conveying and Carrying Velocities

Air carrying velocities for pneumatic transport of products like cement, coal, flour and more

### Pneumatic Powder and Solids - Transport Systems

Pneumatic transport systems are used to move powder and other solid products

### Pneumatic Transporting

An introduction to pneumatic transport of powders

### Pneumatics - Pressure Loss in Pipes

Pressure drop in tubes ranging 5 to 36 mm

### Pressfit Pipes - Pressure Loss Diagram

Water pressure loss diagram pressfit piping

### Pressure Drop in Oil Pipes

Pressure drop in oil pipes - viscosity ranging *100 - 600 Saybolt Universal Seconds*

### Pressure Loss in Steel Pipes Schedule 40

Water flow and pressure loss in schedule 40 steel pipes - Imperial and SI units - gallons per minute, liters per second and cubic meters per hour

### Pressure Loss of Water Due to Friction in Copper Tubes

Pressure Loss (psi/ft) of Water Due to Friction in Copper Tubes Types K, L and M Copper Tube - ASTM B88

### Pressure to Head Unit Converter

Convert between pressure and head units - *lb/in ^{2}, atm, inches mercury, bars, Pa and more ..*

### Pressure-Gradient Diagrams

A pressure-gradient diagram is a graphical presentation of the static pressure throughout a fluid flow system

### Propane Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing pipes with propane gas - for pressure above *5 psig (35 kPa)*

### Propane Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - metric units

### Propane Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - imperial units

### Resistance and Equivalent Length of Fittings

Equivalent length of fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves in hot water heating systems - equivalent length in feet and meter

### Reynolds Number

Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - with online calculators

### Slurry Transports and Minimum Flow Velocities

Avoid settling of solids in slurry transport systems with flow velocities above certain levels

### Standard Dimension Ratio - SDR

It is common to use the Standard Dimension Ratio - SDR - as method of rating pressure piping

### Steel Pipe Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagram

Friction loss and velocity diagrams - in imperial *(psi/100 ft, ft/s)* and SI *(Pa/100m, m/s)* units

### Steel Pipe Schedule 80 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagram

Water flow in steel pipes schedule 80 - pressure drop and velocity diagrams in SI and Imperial units

### Steel Pipes - Maximum Water Flow Capacities

Maximum water flow capacity of steel pipes - dimensions ranging *2 - 24 inches*

### Total Pressure or Head Loss in Pipe or Duct Systems

Major and minor loss in pipe, tubes and duct systems

### Vacuum Pipe Lines - Pressure Drops

Vacuum pipes and pressure drops

### Viscosity Converting Chart

Convert between viscosity units like *Centiposes, milliPascal, CentiStokes and SSU*

### Viscous Fluids - Recommended Suction Flow Velocities

Recommended pump suction flow velocities for viscous fluids

### Viscous Liquids - Recommended Delivery Flow Velocities

Flow velocities on delivery sides of pumps in viscous systems

### Water - Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity

Absolute or dynamic viscosity of water in centipoises for temperatures between *32 - 200 ^{o}F*

### Water - Suction Flow Velocities

Recommended water flow velocities on suction sides of pumps

### Water Delivery Flow Velocities

Required flow velocities in water transport systems - on the delivery side of the pump

### Water Flow and Velocity Head in Schedule 40 Steel Pipes

Velocity head is used to calculate minor pressure or head loss in fluid flow systems

### Water Flow in Tubes - Reynolds Number

Clean cold waterflow in pipes and the Reynolds number

### Williams Hazens Equation of Pressure Drop

The Hazen-Williams equation can be used to calculate pressure drop (psi) in pipes or tubes due to friction