# Fluid Flow and Pressure Drop

## Pipe lines - fluid flow and pressure loss - water, sewer, steel pipes, pvc pipes, copper tubes and more

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### Absolute, Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity

Dynamic, absolute and kinematic viscosities - convert between *CentiStokes (cSt), centipoises (cP), Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU) and degree Engler*

### Boiling Fluids - Recommended Suction Flow Velocities

Recommended pump suction flow velocities for boiling fluids

### Boiling Liquids - Pumping Flow Velocities

Recommended flow velocity required on the delivery side of a pump in a system with boiling liquids

### CTS and CPVC Tubes - Volume Flow and Friction Loss

Volume flow and pressure loss in CTS (Copper Tube Size) and CPVC (Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride) tubes

### Capacities of Sewer Pipes

Carrying capacity of sewer and wastewater pipes - *gpm and liter per second*

### Comparing Friction Loss in Steel, Copper and Plastic Pipes

Water flow and friction head loss *(ft/100 ft) * in steel, copper and PVC plastic pipes

### Comparing Secondary Coolants

Specific gravity, freezing points and viscosity for secondary coolants like calcium chloride, sodium chloride, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol

### Copper Tubes - Fittings and Equivalent Lengths

Copper tube fittings and equivalent lengths - in feets of straight tube

### Copper Tubes and Heat Carrying Capacities

Hot water heat carrying capacity of copper tubes type L

### Darcy-Weisbach Pressure and Head Loss Equation

The Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to calculate pressure or head loss due to friction in ducts, pipes or tubes

### Download ANSI, American National Standards Institute, Standards

ANSI is a private, not-for-profit, membership organization that acts not as a standards developer, but as a standards coordinating and approval body

### Equation of Continuity

The Equation of Continuity is a statement of mass conservation

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### Equivalent Length Method - Calculating Minor Pressure Loss in Piping Systems

Pressure loss in piping systems by using the Equivalent Pipe Length Method

### Flow Units Converter

Convert between volume flow units - *gpm, liter/sec, cfm, m ^{3}/h* - an online flow unit calculator

### Gas Carrying Capacity House Piping

Carrying capacity of gas pipes - imperial and metric units

### Hazen-Williams Equation - calculate Head Loss in Water Pipes

Friction head loss (*ft _{H2O} per 100 ft pipe*) in water pipes can be estimated with the empirical Hazen-Williams equation

### Hydraulic Diameter

Hydraulic diameter of pipes and ducts

### LPG Pipes - Pressure Drops

Resistance and pressure loss in liquid LPG pipes

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### Light Oils - Pumping Flow Velocities

Recommended flow velocity required for light oil systems on the delivery side of the pump

### Light Oils - Suction Flow Velocities

Recommended pump suction flow velocity for light oils

### Lined Pipes - Pressure Drop

Pressure drop diagrams for PTFE, PP, PFA and PVDF lined pipes

### Liquids - Densities

Densities of some common liquids - acetone, beer, oil, water and more

### Liquids - Specific Gravities

Specific gravity of some common liquids and fluids as alcohol, oils, benzene, water and many more

### Low Pressure Gas Pipe Sizing

Apartments gas pipe service lines

### Major loss in Ducts, Tubes and Pipes

Major loss - head loss or pressure loss - due to friction in ducts, pipes and tubes

### Mechanical Energy and Bernoulli Equation

The mechanical energy equation related to energy per unit mass, energy per unit volume and energy per unit weight involving head

### Minor Loss Coefficients in Pipes and Tubes Components

Minor loss coefficients for common used components in pipe and tube systems

### Minor Loss in Pipe or Duct Components

Minor loss, pressure or head loss in pipe, tube and duct system components

### Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - imperial units

### Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing pipes for natural gas - pressures above* 5 psi (35 kPa)*

### Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure natural gas pipe lines - Metric values

### Oil Pipes - Pressure Drop

Pressure drop in oil pipes - for viscosities ranging *100 - 600 Saybolt Universal Seconds*

### Oil Pipes - Recommended Flow Velocities

Flow velocities in oil pipes should be kept within certain limits

### Online Fluid Flow Calculator

For laminar and turbulent flow

### PE - PolyEthylene Pipes, Flow and Pressure Loss

Water flow in SDR pressure rated PE-pipes - pressure loss and velocities - Imperial and SI units

### PE, PEH or PVC Pipes - Pressure Drop Diagram

Pressure drop *(bar/100 m)* and velocy in PE, PEH or PVC pipes

### PVC - Friction Loss in Fittings and Equivalent Length

Minor loss in PVC and CPVC fittings as equivalent length of straight pipe

### PVC Pipes - Friction Loss and Flow Velocities Schedule 40

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 40 - friction loss *(ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft)* and flow velocities at dimensions ranging 1/2 to 16 inches

### PVC Pipes - Friction Loss and Flow Velocities Schedule 80

Water flow in thermoplastic PVC and CPVC pipes Schedule 80 - friction loss *(ft/100 ft, psi/100 ft)* and flow velocities at dimensions ranging 1/2 to 16 inches

### PVC Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagrams

Friction loss *(psi/100 ft)* and velocity for water flow in plastic PVC pipe schedule 40

### Pipes - Fluid Velocities

Flow of liquids, gases and vapors - typical fluid velocities

### Pipes and Fluid Flow Velocities

Calculate fluid flow and pipe velocities in pipes and tubes

### Plastic Pipes - Friction Head Loss

Friction head loss (ft/100 ft) in plastic pipes - PVC, PP, PE, PEH

### Pneumatic Powder and Solids - Transport Systems

Pneumatic transport systems are used to move powder and other solid products

### Pneumatic Transport and Conveying - Carrying Velocities

Recommended air velocity for pneumatic transport of products like cement, coal, flour and more

### Pneumatic Transporting

An introduction to pneumatic transport of powders

### Pneumatics - Pressure Loss in Piping

Pneumatic pressure loss in tubes with sizes ranging 5 - 36 mm

### Pressfit Pipes - Friction Loss

Pressfit pipes, water flow and friction loss

### Pressfit Pipes - Pressure Loss Diagram

Pressure loss diagram for water flow in pressfit piping

### Pressure Gradient Diagrams

A pressure gradient diagram is a graphical presentation of the static pressure throughout a fluid flow system

### Pressure Loss in Steel Pipes Schedule 40

Water flow and pressure loss in schedule 40 steel pipes - Imperial and SI units - gallons per minute, liters per second and cubic meters per hour

### Pressure to Head Unit Converter

Convert between pressure and head units - *lb/in ^{2}, atm, inches mercury, bars, Pa and more ..*

### Propane Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Imperial units

### Propane Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing low pressure propane gas pipe lines - Metric units

### Propane Gas - Pipe Sizing

Sizing propane gas pipe lines - for pressures above *5 psig (35 kPa)*

### Resistance and Equivalent Length of Fittings

Equivalent length of fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves in hot water heating systems - equivalent length in feet and meter

### Reynolds Number

Introduction and definition of the dimensionless Reynolds Number - online calculators

### Slurry Transports and Minimum Flow Velocities

Avoid settling of solids in slurry transport systems with flow velocities above certain levels

### Standard Dimension Ratio - SDR

It is common to use the Standard Dimension Ratio - SDR - as method of rating pressure piping

### Steel Pipe Friction Loss - with Viscous Liquids

Friction loss in schedule 40 steel pipe with viscous liquids - viscosities ranging from water to oil

### Steel Pipes in Heating Systems - Pressure Loss Chart

Steel pipes in hot water heating systems - pressure loss diagram

### Steel Pipes - Maximum Water Flow Capacities

Maximum water flow capacities in steel pipes - pipe dimensions ranging *2 - 24 inches*

### Steel Pipes Schedule 40 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagram

Friction loss and velocity diagrams - in imperial *(psi/100 ft, ft/s)* and SI *(Pa/100m, m/s)* units

### Steel Pipes Schedule 80 - Friction loss and Velocity Diagrams

Water flow in steel pipes schedule 80 - pressure drop and velocity diagrams in SI and Imperial units

### Total Pressure or Head Loss in Pipe or Duct Systems

Major and minor loss in pipe, tubes and duct systems

### Vacuum Pipe Lines - Pressure Drops

Vacuum pipes and pressure drops

### Viscosity Converting Chart

Convert between viscosity units like *Centiposes, milliPascal, CentiStokes and SSU*

### Viscous Fluids - Recommended Suction Flow Velocities

Recommended pump suction flow velocities for viscous fluids

### Viscous Liquids - Friction Loss

Friction loss in steel pipes - for fluids with viscosities ranging *32 - 80000 SSU*

### Viscous Liquids - Recommended Delivery Flow Velocities

Flow velocities on delivery sides of pumps in viscous systems

### Water - Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity

Absolute or dynamic viscosity of water in centipoises for temperatures between *32 - 200 ^{o}F*

### Water - Suction Flow Velocities

Recommended water flow velocities on suction sides of pumps

### Water Delivery Flow Velocities

Required flow velocities in water transport systems - on the delivery side of the pump

### Water Flow and Velocity Head in Steel Pipes - Schedule 40

Velocity head used to calculate minor pressure or head loss in fluid flow systems

### Water Flow in Copper Tubes - Pressure Loss due to Fricton

Water flow and pressure loss *(psi/ft)* due to friction in copper tubes ASTM B88 Types K, L and M

### Water Flow in Tubes - Reynolds Number

Clean cold waterflow in pipes and the Reynolds number

### Water Flow through Hoses - Pressure Loss

Pressure loss due to friction in hoses

### Williams Hazens Pressure Drop Equation

The Hazen-Williams equation can be used to calculate the pressure drop (psi) or friction loss in pipes or tubes