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# Pumps - Head vs. Pressure

Pumps characteristic curves are often in head - feet or metres - and a conversion to pressure scales commonly used in pressure gauges - like psi or bar - may be required.

#### Converting head in feet to pressure in psi

Pumps characteristic curves in feet of head can be converted to pressure - psi - by the expression:

p = 0.433 h SG                            (1)

where

p = pressure (psi)

SG = specific gravity of the fluid

#### Converting head in metre to pressure in bar

Pumps characteristic curves in metre of head can be converted to pressure - bar - by the expression:

p = 0.0981 h SG                          (2)

where

p = pressure (bar)

#### Converting head in metre to pressure in kg/cm2

Pumps characteristic curves in metre of head can be converted to pressure - kg/cm2 - by the expression:

p = 0.1 h SG                          (2b)

where

p = pressure (kg/cm2)

Since pressure gauges often are calibrated in pressure - psi or bar - a conversion to the heads commonly used in pump curves - like feet or meter - may be required.

#### Converting pressure in psi to head in feet

h = 2.31 p / SG                          (3)

where

p = pressure (psi)

#### Converting pressure in bar to head in metre

h = p 10.197 / SG                          (4)

where

p = pressure (bar)

#### Converting pressure in kg/cm2 to head in metre

h = p 10 / SG                           (4b)

where

p = pressure (kg/cm2)

### Example - Converting Pump Head - feet - to Pressure - psi

The pressure - psi - of a water pump operating with head 120 ft can be calculated with eq. 1 as:

p = 0.433 (120 ft) (1)

= 52 psi

### Example - Converting Pressure - psi - to Pump Head - feet

The head in feet water column can be calculated from pressure 100 psi with eq. 3 as:

h = 2.31 (100 psi) / (1)
= 231 ft

Where specific gravity of water = 1.

### Feet of Head Water to psi

Pumps - Water Head vs. Pressure
(ft)

Pressure
(psi)

1 0.43
2 0.87
3 1.30
4 1.73
5 2.17
6 2.60
7 3.03
8 3.46
9 3.90
10 4.33
20 8.66
30 13.0
40 17.3
50 21.7
60 26.0
70 30.3
80 34.7
90 39.0
100 43.3
120 52.0
140 60.6
160 69.3
180 78.0
200 86.6
250 108
300 130
350 152
400 173
500 217
600 260
700 303
800 346
900 390
1000 433
• water at 62°F (17°C)

### Head vs. Pressure when handling Liquids of different Density

Head vs. Pressure - Liquids of different Density
(ft)
Pressure
(psi)
Water 1.0 100 43.3
Kerosene 0.8 100 36.6
Sulphuric Acid 1.8 100 77.9

Identical pumps will develop the same head when running at the same speed but the discharge pressure is quite different due to the different densities of the liquids. It can be simpler to discuss the performance pumps in terms of head rather than pressure since the use of head makes the pump curve applicable to any liquid regardless of density.

## Related Topics

### • Pumps

Piping systems and pumps - centrifugal pumps, displacement pumps - cavitation, viscosity, head and pressure, power consumption and more.

## Related Documents

### Centrifugal Pumps

An introduction to Centrifugal Pumps.

### Centrifugal Pumps - Capacity Modulation

Modulating pumps to adapt capacities to variable process demands.

### Centrifugal Pumps - Stable and Unstable Flow

The characteristics of stable and unstable flow.

### Hydrostatic Pressure vs. Depth

Depth and hydrostatic pressure.

### Pipe and Duct Systems - Total Head Loss

Major and minor loss in pipes, tubes and duct systems.

### Pressure to Head Unit Converter

Pressure vs. head units - like lb/in2, atm, inches mercury, bars, Pa and more.

### Pressure Units - Online Converter

Convert between pressure units like Pa,  bar, atmosphere, pound square feet, psi and more.

### Pumping Water - Required Horsepower

Horsepower required to pump water.

### Pumps and Fans - Energy Equation and Head Rise

The energy equation can be used to calculate the head rise in pumps and fans.

Static pressure vs. pressure head in fluids.

Pressure in pounds per square inch (psi) vs. head in feet of water (ft h2o).

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