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Thermodynamic Key Values Internationally Agreed

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The table contains internationally agreed values for the thermodynamic properties of key chemical substances. The use of these internally consistent values are strongly recommended in the analysis of thermodynamic measurements, data reduction and preparation of other thermodynamic tables.

See explanation of the enthalpy and entropy terms.

See also Standard enthalpy of formation, Gibbs free energy of formation, entropy and molar heat capacity of organic substances and Standard state and enthalpy of formation, Gibbs free energy of formation, entropy and heat capacity for tabulation of more thermodynamic information

Thermodynamic Key Values Internationally Agreed
Substance State* ΔH° f (298.15)°C
kJ/mol
S° (298.15)
J/(mol K)
H°(298.15)-H°(0)
kJ/mol
Ag(s) cr 0 42.6 5.745
Ag(g) g 284.9 172.997 6.197
Ag + (aq) aq 105.79 73.5
AgCl(s) cr -127.01 96.3 12.033
Al(s) g 0 28.3 4.54
Al(g) cr 330.0 164.554 6.919
Al 3+ aq -538.4 -325
AlF 3 (s) cr -1510.4 66.5 11.62
Al 2 O 3 (s) cr, corundum -1675.7 50.9 10.016
Ar g 0 154.85 6.197
B(s) cr, rhombic 0 5.90 1.222
B(g) g 565 153.436 6.316
BF 3 g -1136.0 254.4 11.650
B 2 O 3 cr -1273.5 54.0 9.301
Be(g) g 324 136.275 6.197
Be(s) cr 0 9.50 1.950
BeO(s) cr -609.4 13.77 2.837
Br - (aq) aq -121.41 82.6
Br(g) g 111.87 175.018 6.197
Br 2 (l) l 0 152.2 24.52
Br 2 (g) g 30.91 245.468 9.725
C(s, graphite) cr, graphite 0 5.7 1.05
C(g) g 716.68 158.100 6.536
CO(g) g -110.53 197.660 8.671
CO 2 (g) g -393.51 213.79 9.365
CO 2 aq, undissoc. -413.25 119.4
CO 3 2- aq -675.23 -50
Ca(s) cr 0 41.6 5.736
Ca(g) g 177.8 154.887 6.197
CaO(s) cr -634.92 38.1 6.75
Cd(s) cr 0 51.8 6.247
Cd(g) g 111.80 167.749 6.197
Cd 2+ aq -75.92 -73
CdO cr -258.35 55 8.41
CdSO 4 *(8/3)H2O cr -1729.3 229.7 35.56
Cl - (aq) aq -167.080 56.6
Cl(g) g 121.301 165.190 6.272
ClO 4 - aq -128.1 184
Cl2 g 0 223.08 9.181
Cs(s) cr 0 85.2 7.711
Cs(g) g 76.5 175.601 6.197
Cs + aq -258.0 132.1
Cu(s) cr 0 33.15 5.004
Cu(g) g 337.4 166.398 6.197
Cu 2+ aq 64.9 -98
CuSO 4 (s) cr -771.4 109.2 16.86
F - (aq) aq -335.35 -13.8
F(g) g 79.38 158.751 6.518
F 2 (g) g 0 202.791 8.825
Ge cr 0 31.09 4.636
Ge g 372.00 167.904 7.398
GeF 4 g -1190.2 302 17.29
GeO 2 cr, tetragonal -580 39.71 7.23
H(g) g 217.998 114.717 6.197
H + (aq) aq 0 0
HCO 3 - aq -69.93 98.4
H 2 (g) g 0 130.68 8.468
H 2 O(g) g -241.826 188.84 9.905
H 2 O(l) l -285.830 69.95 13.273
H 2 S(g) g -20.6 205.81 9.957
H 2 S aq, undissoc. -38.6 126
HSO 4 - aq -886.9 132
HPO 4 2- aq -1299 -33.5
H 2 PO 4 - aq -1302.6 93
H 3 BO 3 cr -1094.8 90.0 13.52
H 3 BO 3 aq, undissoc. -1070.8 162.4
HBr(g) g -36.29 198.700 8.648
HCl(g) g -92.31 186.902 8.640
HF(g) g -273.3 173.779 8.599
HI(g) g 26.5 206.590 8.657
He g 0 126.153 6.197
Hg(l) l 0 75.9 9.342
Hg(g) g 61.38 174.971 6.197
Hg 2+ aq 170.21 -36.2
Hg 2 2+ aq 166.87 65.7
HgO(s) cr, red -90.79 70.3 9.117
Hg 2 SO 4 (s) cr -743.09 200.7 26.07
Hg 2 Cl 2 (s) cr -265.37 191.6 23.35
I - (aq) aq -56.78 106.5
I(g) g 106.76 180.787 6.197
I 2 (s) cr 0 116.1 13.196
I 2 (g) g 62.42 260.687 10.116
K(s) cr 0 64.7 7.088
K(g) g 89.0 160.341 6.197
K + aq -252.14 101.2
Kr g 0 164.085 6.197
Li(s) cr 0 29.1 4.632
Li(g) g 159.3 138.78 6.197
Li + (aq) aq -278.47 12.24
Mg(s) cr 0 32.7 4.998
Mg(g) g 147.1 148.648 6.197
Mg 2+ aq -467 -137
MgF 2 (s) cr -1124.2 57.2 9.91
MgO(s) cr -601.6 27.0 5.16
N(g) g 472.68 153.301 6.197
N 2 (g) g 0 191.609 8.670
NH 3 (g) g -45.94 192.77 10.043
NH 4 + (aq) aq -133.26 111.2
NO 3 - aq -206.85 146.7
Na(s) cr 0 51.3 6.46
Na(g) g 107.5 153.718 6.197
Na + (aq) aq -240.34 58.45
Ne g 0 146.328 6.197
O(g) g 249.18 161.059 6.725
O 2 (g) g 0 205.152 8.68
OH - (aq) aq -230.015 -10.9
P(s, white) cr 0 41.09 5.36
P(g, white) g 316.5 163.199 6.197
P 2 (g) g 144.0 218.123 8.904
P 4 (g) g 58.9 280.0 14.1
Pb(s) cr 0 64.8 6.87
Pb(g) g 195.2 175.375 6.197
Pb 2+ aq 0.92 18.5
PbSO 4 (s) cr -920.0 148.5 20.05
Rb(s) cr 0 76.8 7.49
Rb(g) g 80.9 170.094 6.197
Rb + aq -251.1 121.75
S(s, rhombic) cr 0 32.05 4.412
S(g, rhombic) g 277.2 167.829 6.657
SH - aq -16.3 67
SO 2 (g) g -296.8 248.22 10.549
SO 4 2- (aq) aq -909.3 18.5
S 2 g 128.6 228.17 9.132
Si(s) cr 0 18.81 3.217
Si(g) g 450 167.981 7.550
SiF 4 g -1615.0 282.8 15.36
SiO 2 cr, alpha quartz -911 41.5 6.92
Sn(s, white) cr 0 51.18 6.323
Sn(g, white) g 301 168.492 6.215
Sn 2+ aq -9 -17
SnO cr, tetragonal -280.7 57.2 8.74
SnO 2 (s) cr, tetragonal -577.6 49.0 8.38
Th cr 0 51.8 6.35
Th g 602 190.17 6.197
ThO 2 cr -1226.4 65.23 10.56
Ti(s) cr 0 30.7 4.824
Ti(g) g 473 180.30 7.539
TiCl 4 (g) g -763 353 21.5
TiO 2 (s) cr, rutile -944.0 50.6 8.68
U(s) cr 0 50.2 6.36
U(g) g 533 199.8 6.50
UO 2 (s) cr -1085 77.0 11.28
UO 2 2+ aq -1019 -98
UO 3 cr, gamma -1223 96.1 14.59
U 3 O 8 cr -3575 282.6 42.7
Xe g 0 169.685 6.197
Zn(s) cr 0 41.6
Zn(g) g 130.4 160.990 6.197
Zn 2+ aq -153.39 -109.8
ZnO cr -350.5 43.7 6.93

* g: gas,    cr: crystalline,   aq: solved in water, as ions if not undissociated is indicated

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