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# Humid Air - Heating

The process of sensible heating of air - heating without adding moisture - can be visualized in the Mollier diagram as:

Sensible heating of air changes the state of the air from A to B along the constant specific humidity - x - line. The supplied heat - dH - can be estimated as indicated in the diagram above.

The heating process can also be visualized in the psychrometric chart

Note! - when sensible heating of air - the specific moisture remains constant - the relative humidity is decreased.

### Calculating Enthalpy

The enthalpy of moist air can be calculated as:

h = c pa t + x [c pw t + h we ] (1)

where

h = specific enthalpy of moist air (kJ/kg)

c pa = 1.01 - specific heat capacity of air at constant pressure (kJ/kg o C, kWs/kgK)

t = air temperature ( o C)

x = humidity ratio (kg/kg)

c pw = 1.84 - specific heat capacity of water vapor at constant pressure (kJ/kg. o C, kWs/kg.K)

h we = 2502 - evaporation heat of water at 0 o C (kJ/kg)

(1) can be modified to:

h = 1.01 (kJ/kg. o C) t + x [1.84 (kJ/kg. o C) t + 2502 (kJ/kg)] (1b)

### The Enthalpy Difference

The enthalpy difference when heating air without adding moisture can be calculated as:

dh A-B = c pa t B + x [c pw t B + h we ] - c pa t A + x [c pw t A + h we ]

= c pa (t B - t A ) + x c pw (t B - t A ) (2)

#### Example - Enthalpy Change when Heating Air

The specific humidity of air at 25 o C and relative moisture 50% is 0.0115 kg/kg - check the Mollier diagram . The change in enthalpy when heating the air to 35 o C can be calculated as:

dh A-B = (1.01 kJ/kg o C)(35 o C - 25 o C) + (0.0115 kg/kg) (1.84 kJ/kg o C) (35 o C - 25 o C)

= (10.1 kJ/kg) + (0.2 kJ/kg)

= 10.3 (kJ/kg)

Note! - the contribution from the water vapor is relatively small and can for practical purposes often be neglected. (2) can then be modified to:

dh A-B = c pa ( t B - t A ) (2b)

### Increase in Temperature when Heating Air

If heat is added to humid air the increase in air temperature can be calculated by modifying (2b) to:

t B - t A = dh A-B / c pa (2c)

#### Example - Heating Air and Temperature Rise

If 10.1 kJ is added to 1 kg air the temperature rise can be calculated as:

t B - t A = (10.1 kJ/kg) / (1.01 kJ/kg o C)

= 10 ( o C)

### Heat Flow in a Heating Coil

The total heat flow rate through a heating coil can be calculated as:

q = m (h B - h A ) (3)

where

q = heat flow rate (kJ/s, kW)

m = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

The total heat flow can also be expressed as:

q s = L ρ (h B - h A ) (3a)

where

L = air flow rate (m 3 /s)

ρ = density of air (kg/m 3 )

Note! The density of air varies with temperature. At 0 o C the density is 1.293 kg/m 3 . At 80 o C the density is 1.0 kg/m 3 .

It's common to express sensible heat flow rate as:

q = m c pa (t B - t A ) (3b)

or alternatively:

q = L ρ c pa (t B - t A ) (3c)

### Heating Coil Effectiveness

For a limited heating coil surface the average surface temperature will always be higher than the outlet air temperature. The effectiveness of a heating coil can be expressed as:

μ = (t B - t A ) / (t HC - t A ) (4)

where

μ = heating coil effectiveness

t HC = mean surface temperature of the heating coil ( o C)

### Example - Heating Air

1 m 3 /s of air at 15 o C and relative humidity 60% (A) is heated to 30 o C (B). The surface temperature of the heating coil is 80 o C . The density of air at 20 o C is 1.205 kg/m 3 .

From the Mollier diagram the enthalpy in (A) is 31 kJ/kg and in (B) 46 kJ/kg .

The heating coil effectiveness can be calculated as:

μ = (30 o C - 15 o C) / (80 o C - 15 o C)

= 0.23

The heat flow can be calculated as:

q = (1 m 3 /s) (1.205 kg/m 3 ) ((46 kJ/kg) - (31 kJ/kg))

= 18 (kJ/s, kW)

As an alternative, as one of the most common methods:

q = (1 m 3 /s) (1.205 kg/m 3 ) (1.01 kJ/kg. o C) (30 o C - 15 o C)

= 18.3 (kJ/s, kW)

Note! Due to the inaccuracy when working with diagrams there is a small difference between the total heat flow and the sum of the latent and sensible heat. In general - this inaccuracy is within acceptable limits.

## Related Topics

### • Air Psychrometrics

Moist and humid air - psychrometric charts, Mollier diagrams, air-condition temperatures and absolute and relative humidity and moisture content.

## Related Documents

### Air - Drying Force

The drying force of air depends on the air moisture holding capacity and the water surface to air evaporation capacity.

### Air - Heating, Cooling, Mixing, Humidifying or Dehumidifying Processes

Basic air changing state processes - heating, cooling, mixing, humidifying and dehumidifying by adding steam or water - psychometric diagrams and the Mollier charts.

### Air - Humidifying with Steam, SI units

Using steam to humidify air.

### Air - Humidity Measurement from Dry and Wet Bulb Temperature

Relative humidity in moist air can estimated by measuring the dry and wet bulb temperature.

### Air - Maximum Moisture Carrying Capacity

Maximum water content in humid air vs. temperature.

### Air - Specific Heat vs. Temperature at Constant Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing specific heat (Cp and Cv) of dry air vs. temperature and pressure. SI and imperial units.

### Air - Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature and Pressure

Online calculator with figures and tables showing air thermal conductivity vs. temperature and pressure. SI and imperial units.

### Air - Thermophysical Properties

Thermal properties of air at different temperatures - density, viscosity, critical temperature and pressure, triple point, enthalpi and entropi, thermal conductivity and diffusivity and more.

### Air Cooling of Storage Roooms

Heat removed from storage rooms with cooled air.

### Air Heating Systems

Air heating buildings - heat supply vs. air flow and temperature.

### Cooling and Heating Equations

Latent and sensible cooling and heating equations - imperial units.

### Cooling Load - Latent and Sensible Heat

Latent and sensible cooling loads to consider when designing HVAC systems.

### Dry Air - Thermodynamic and Physical Properties

Thermodynamic properties of dry air - specific heat, ratio of specific heats, dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, density and kinematic viscosity at temperatures ranging 175 - 1900 K.

### Great Sensible Heat Factor - GSHF

The Great Sensible Heat Factor is the ratio sensible to total heat in a cooling coil.

### Heat Recovery

Ventilation and heat-recovery calculations, sensible and latent heat - online calculators - imperial units.

### Heat Recovery Efficiency

Classification of heat recovery efficiencies - temperature efficiency, moisture efficiency and enthalpy efficiency - online heat exchanger efficiency calculator.

### Latent Heat Flow

Latent heat is the heat when supplied to or removed from air results in a change in moisture content - the temperature of the air is not changed.

### Moist Air - Cooling and Dehumidifying

Cooling and dehumidifying processes of moist and humid air - sensible and latent cooling.

### Moist Air - Enthalpy

Sensible and latent heat of moist air.

### Removing Heat with Air

Calculating heat removed with air by measuring the wet bulb temperature.

### Steam Heating Air

Calculate steam heated air systems.

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