Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

This is an AMP page - Open full page! for all features.

Moist Air - Relative Humidity

Sponsored Links

Humidity is the quantity of water vapor present in air. It can be expressed as an absolute, specific or relative value.

Relative humidity is expressed by

  • partial vapor and air pressure,
  • density of the vapor and air, or
  • by the actual mass of the vapor and air

Relative humidity is usually expressed in per cent and abbreviated by φ or RH.

Relative Humidity and Vapor Partial Pressure

Relative humidity as the ratio of vapor partial pressure in the air - to the saturation vapor partial pressure if the air at the actual dry bulb temperature.

φ = pw / pws 100%                            (1)


φ = relative humidity [%]

pw = vapor partial pressure [mbar]

pws = saturation vapor partial pressure at the actual dry bulb temperature [mbar]. This is the vapour pressure at maximum content of water gas in air, before it starts to condense out as liquid water.

Vapor saturation pressures at different temperatures:

Moist Air - Saturation Vapor Pressure
TemperatureSaturation Vapor Pressure
[10-3 bar]
-18 0 1.5
-15 5 1.9
-12 10 2.4
-9 15 3.0
-7 20 3.7
-4 25 4.6
-1 30 5.6
2 35 6.9
4 40 8.4
7 45 10.3
10 50 12.3
13 55 14.8
16 60 17.7
18 65 21.0
21 70 25.0
24 75 29.6
27 80 35.0
29 85 41.0
32 90 48.1
35 95 56.2
38 100 65.6
41 105 76.2
43 110 87.8
46 115 101.4
49 120 116.8
52 125 134.2
  • 10-3 bar = 1 millibar
  • 1 bar = 1000 mbar = 105 Pa (N/m2) = 0.1 N/mm2 = 10,197 kp/m2 = 10.20 m H2O = 0.9869 atm = 14.50 psi (lbf/in2) = 106 dyn/cm2 = 750 mmHg

If the water vapor pressure in the air is 10.3 mbar, the vapor saturates on a surface with 45oF (7oC).

Note! The atmospheric pressure of air is 1013 mbar (101.325 kPa, 760 mmHg). As we can see the maximum water vapor pressure - the saturation pressure - is relatively small.

Relative Humidity and Vapor Pressure

From the table above the saturation pressure at 70oF (21oC) is 25.0 mbar. If the vapor pressure in the actual air is 10.3 mbar the relative humidity can be calculated as:

φ = 10.2 [mbar] / 25.0 [mbar]* 100[%]

= 41[%]

Relative Humidity and Vapor Density

Relative humidity can also be expressed as the ratio of the vapor density of the air - to the saturation vapor density at the the actual dry bulb temperature.

Relative humidity by density:

φ = ρw / ρws 100%                               (2b)


φ = relative humidity [%]

ρw = vapor density [kg/m3]

ρws = vapor density at saturation at actual dry bulb temperature [kg/m3]

A common unit for vapor density is g/m3.

Example: Relative humidity at a given temperature and known vapor density and saturation density

If the actual vapor density at 20oC (68oF) is 10 g/m3 and the saturation vapor density at this temperature is 17.3 g/m3, the relative humidity can be calculated as

φ = 10 [g/m3] / 17.3 [g/m3] *100 [%]

= 57.8 [%]


Relative Humidity and Vapor Mass

Relative humidity can also be expressed as the ratio at actual mass of water vapor in a given air volume - to the mass of water vapor required to saturate at this volume.

Relative humidity can be expressed as:

φ = mw / mws 100%                            (2c)


φ = relative humidity [%]

mw = mass of water vapor in the given air volume [kg]

mws = mass of water vapor required to saturate at this volume [kg]

Relative Humidity Chart - degrees Fahrenheit

Relative Humidity Chart - degrees Celsius


Altitude and Correction Factors

Moist Air - Barometric Altitude and Correction Factor
Barometric Altitude
Abs. AltitudeCorrection Factor for
1013 0 0 1.000
1000 108 354 0.987
989 200 656 0.976
966 400 1312 0.953
943 600 1996 0.931
921 800 2624 0.909
899 1000 3281 0.887
842 1500 4922 0.831
795 2000 6562 0.785
Sponsored Links

Related Topics

Air Psychrometrics

Moist and humid air calculations. Psychrometric charts and Mollier diagrams. Air-condition systems temperatures, absolute and relative humidities and moisture content in air.

Related Documents

Air - Drying Force

The drying force of air depends on the air moisture holding capacity and the water surface to air evaporation capacity.

Air - Humidity Measurement from Dry and Wet Bulb Temperature

Relative humidity in moist air can estimated by measuring the dry and wet bulb temperature.

Air - Humidity Ratio

The mass of water vapor present in moist air - to the mass of dry air.

Air - Maximum Moisture Carrying Capacity

Maximum water content in humid air vs. temperature.

Air - Moisture Holding Capacity vs. Temperature

The moisture holding capacity of air increases with temperature.

Air - SCFM versus ACFM and ICFM

Actual air compressor capacity (ACFM) vs. standard air capacity (SCFM) and inlet air capacity (ICFM).

Dry Bulb, Wet Bulb and Dew Point Temperatures

Dry Bulb, Wet Bulb and Dew Point temperatures can be used to determine the state of humid air.

Health vs. Relative Humidity

The optimum relative humidity ranges for bacteria, viruses, fungi, mites, asthma.

Indoor Relative Humidity vs. Outdoor Relative Humidity and Temperature

Recommended indoor relative humidity vs. outdoor relative humidity and temperature.

Moist Air - Cooling and Dehumidifying

Cooling and dehumidifying processes of moist and humid air - sensible and latent cooling.

Moist Air - Daltons Law of Partial Pressure

The pressure in a mixture of dry air and water vapor - humid or moist air - can be estimated by using Daltons Law of partial pressures.

Moist Air - Degree of Saturation

Humidity ratio of moist air to humidity ratio of saturated moist air.

Moist Air - Density vs. Pressure

Density of moist air vs. pressure ranging 75 - 1000 mmHg.

Moist Air - Psychrometric Table for Pressure 29.92 inHg

Dry and wet bulb temperatures, saturation pressure, water vapor weight, specific volume, heat and more.

Moist Air - Psychrometric Terms

Dry and wet bulb temperature, specific volume, relative humidity,  enthalpy and more.

Moist Air - Specific vs. Relative Humidity

Specific humidity of moist air vs. relative humidity, water vapor and air density.

Moist Air - Vapor Pressure

Vapor pressures vs. dry and wet bulb temperatures in moist air.

Relative Humidity in Production and Process Environments

Recommended relative humidity in production and process environments - like libraries, breweries, storages and more.

Removing Heat with Air

Calculating heat removed with air by measuring the wet bulb temperature.

Saturated Salt Solutions - Controlling Air Humidity

A salt solutions can be used maintain a particular value of relative humidity.

Water - Saturation Pressure vs. Temperature

Online calculator, figures and tables with water saturation (vapor) pressure at temperatures ranging 0 to 370 °C (32 to 700°F) - in Imperial and SI Units.

Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT)

The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature can be used to measure the general Heat-Stress index.

Sponsored Links

Search Engineering ToolBox

  • the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox!

SketchUp Extension - Online 3D modeling!

Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro . Add the Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp from the Sketchup Extension Warehouse!


We don't collect information from our users. Only emails and answers are saved in our archive. Cookies are only used in the browser to improve user experience.

Some of our calculators and applications let you save application data to your local computer. These applications will - due to browser restrictions - send data between your browser and our server. We don't save this data.

Google use cookies for serving our ads and handling visitor statistics. Please read Google Privacy & Terms for more information about how you can control adserving and the information collected.

AddThis use cookies for handling links to social media. Please read AddThis Privacy for more information.