Fresh air is required for respiration and for transport of heat and vapor emitted from the human body.
An adult at rest breathes 15 - 18 respiration per minute - exchanging 0.5 liter - approximately 0.5 m3/h. With harder work the rate is 3 to 6 times more (1.5 - 3 m3/h).
The average composition of exhaled air is
- Oxygen 16.5%
- Carbon dioxide 4.0%
- Nitrogen and Argon 79.5%
The quantity of carbon dioxide exhaled in 24 hrs is about 1 kg.
Equilibrium of Heat
Heat is generated within the human body by the combustion of food. The heat is lost from the body by
- Conduction and convection - about 25%
- Radiation - about 43%
- Evaporation and moisture - about 30%
- Exhaled air - about 2%
Evaporation prevails at high ambient temperatures. Conduction and convection prevails at low ambient temperatures. Heat is liberated in a rate maintaining the internal body temperature at 37oC.
Heat loss from human body
The total heat loss from an adult at normal activity is approximately 118 W (2 Met) in at room with temperatures between 19oC and 34oC.
|Dry bulb temperature |
|Sensible heat (W)||135||112||100||95||84||59||29|
|Latent heat (W)||22||22||22||24||34||59||90|
|Total heat (W)||157||134||122||118||118||118||119|