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Metals Machinability

Machinability of metals

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Machinability of a material can be defined as the ease with which it can be machined. Machinability depends on the physical properties and the cutting conditions of the material.

Machinability can be expressed as a percentage or a normalized value. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) has determined AISI No. 1112 carbon steel a machinability rating of 100%.

Machinability of some common materials related to AISI No. 1112 are indicated in the table below:

Carbon Steels

  • 1015 - 72%
  • 1018 - 78%
  • 1020 - 72%
  • 1022 - 78%
  • 1030 - 70%
  • 1040 - 64%
  • 1042 - 64%
  • 1050 - 54%
  • 1095 - 42%
  • 1117 - 91%
  • 1137 - 72%
  • 1141 - 70%
  • 1141 annealed - 81%
  • 1144 - 76%
  • 1144 annealed - 85%
  • 1144 stress-proof - 83%
  • 1212 - 100%
  • 1213 - 136%
  • 12L14 - 170%
  • 1215 - 136%

Alloy Steels

  • 2355 annealed - 70%
  • 4130 annealed - 72%
  • 4140 annealed - 66%
  • 4142 annealed - 66%
  • 41L42 annealed - 77%
  • 4150 annealed - 60%
  • 4340 annealed - 57%
  • 4620 - 66%
  • 4820 annealed - 49%
  • 52100 annealed - 40%
  • 6150 annealed - 60%
  • 8620 - 66%
  • 86L20 - 77%
  • 9310 annealed - 51%

Stainless Steels and Super Alloys

  • 302 annealed - 45%
  • 303 annealed - 78%
  • 304 annealed - 45%
  • 316 annealed - 45%
  • 321 annealed - 36%
  • 347 annealed - 36%
  • 410 annealed - 54%
  • 416 annealed - 110%
  • 420 annealed - 45%
  • 430 annealed - 54%
  • 431 annealed - 45%
  • 440A - 45%
  • 15-5PH condition A - 48%
  • 17-4PH condition A - 48%
  • A286 aged - 33%
  • Hastelloy X - 19%

Tool Steels

  • A-2 - 42%
  • A-6 - 33%
  • D-2 - 27%
  • D-3 - 27%
  • M-2 - 39%
  • O-1 - 42%
  • O-2 - 42%

Gray Cast Iron

  • ASTM class 20 annealed - 73%
  • ASTM class 25 - 55%
  • ASTM class 30 - 48%
  • ASTM class 35 - 48%
  • ASTM class 40 - 48%
  • ASTM class 45 - 36%
  • ASTM class 50 - 36%

Nodular Ductile Iron

  • 60-40-18 annealed - 61%
  • 65-45-12 annealed - 61%
  • 80-55-06 - 39%

Aluminum / Magnesium Alloys

  • aluminum, cold drawn - 360%
  • aluminum, cast - 450%
  • aluminum, die cast - 76%
  • magnesium, cold drawn - 480%
  • magnesium, cast - 480%
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