- whereby a material can be plastic deformed and shaped when cold
A malleable material can be plastic shaped with hammering or rolling without fracture.
Typical malleable materials:
- mild steel, gold, lead
- whereby a material will fracture without appreciable prior plastic deformation
Brittleness is lack of ductility and for a brittle material there is no plastic deformation. The elastic stage is followed by immediate fracture.
Typical brittle materials:
- glass, concrete, ceramics, stone, gray cast iron
- whereby a material can be plastic deformed by elongation without fracture
Ductile materials can typically be plastic elongated with more than 15% before they fracture.
Typical ductile materials:
- copper, mild steel, thermoplastics
Specification of Ductility
Ductility can be specified as percent elongation before rupture as
DL = 100% (Lf - L0) / L0 (1)
DL = ductility related to elongation (%)
Lf = final length of specimen at fracture (m, mm, in...)
L0 = original length of specimen (m, mm, in...)
Alternatively ductility can be specified as percent reduction of area as
DA = 100% (A0 - Af) / A0 (2)
DA = ductility related to reduction of area (%)
Af = final area of specimen at fracture (m, mm, in...)
A0 = original area of specimen (m, mm, in...)
Material properties of gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more.
The Brinell hardness test of metals and alloys.
The four basic types of cast iron - white iron, gray iron, ductile iron and malleable iron.
Thermal expansion coefficients metals.
The Mohs qualitative ordinal scale characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals.
Densities of minerals.
When a material is stretched in one direction it tends to get thinner in the other two directions.
Some metals and their Poisson's Ratios.
Densities, tensile strength, elongation, Youngs modulus and Brinell hardness.
Magnetic, spark, hardness and acid identification tests for austenitic, martensitic and ferritic stainless steels.
Weight and strength of sandstone, granite, limestone, marble and slate.
Stress is force per unit area - strain is the deformation of a solid due to stress.