Fuels - Higher Calorific Values

Higher calorific values for some common fuels - coke, oil, wood, hydrogen and others

The calorific value of a fuel is the quantity of heat produced by its combustion - at constant pressure and under "normal" ("standard") conditions (i.e. to 0oC and under a pressure of 1,013 mbar).

The combustion process generates water vapor and certain techniques may be used to recover the quantity of heat contained in this water vapor by condensing it.

  • Higher Calorific Value (or Gross Calorific Value - GCV, or Higher Heating Value - HHV) -  the water of combustion is entirely condensed and that the heat contained in the water vapor is recovered
  • Lower Calorific Value (or Net Calorific Value - NCV, or Lower Heating Value - LHV) - the products of combustion contains the water vapor and that the heat in the water vapor is not recovered
FuelHigher Calorific Value
(Gross Calorific Value - GCV)
Lower Calorific Value
(Net Calorific Value - NCV)
kJ/kgBtu/lbkJ/kg
Acetone 29000
Alcohol 96% 30000
Anthracite 32500 - 34000 14000 - 14500
Bituminous coal 17000 - 23250 7300 - 10000
Butane 49510 20900 45750
Carbon 34080
Charcoal 29600 12800
Coal (Lignite - Anthrasite) 15000 - 27000 8000 - 14000
Coke 28000 - 31000 12000 - 13500
Diesel fuel 44800 19300 43400
Ethane 51900 47800
Ethanol 29700 12800
Ether 43000
Gasoline 47300 20400 44400
Glycerin 19000
Hydrogen 141790 61000 121000
Kerosene 46200 43000
Lignite 16300 7000
Methane 55530   50000
Methanol 23000
Oil, heavy fuel 43000
Oil, light destilate 48000
Oil, light fuel 44000
Oils vegetable 39000 - 48000
Paraffin 46000 41500
Peat 13800 - 20500 5500 - 8800
Pentane 45350
Petrol 48000
Petroleum 43000
Propane 50350   46350
Semi anthracite 26700 - 32500 11500 - 14000
Sulfur 9200
Tar 36000
Turpentine 44000
Wood (dry) 14400 - 17400 6200 - 7500
kJ/m3 Btu/ft3
Acetylene 56000
Butane C4H10 133000 3200
Hydrogen 13000
Natural gas 43000 950 - 1150
Methane CH4 39820  
Propane C3H8 101000 2550
Town gas 18000
kJ/l Btu/Imp gal
Gas oil 38000 164000
Heavy fuel oil 41200 177000
Kerosene 35000 154000
  • 1 kJ/kg = 1 J/g = 0.4299 Btu/ lbm = 0.23884 kcal/kg
  • 1 Btu/lbm = 2.326 kJ/kg = 0.55 kcal/kg
  • 1 kcal/kg = 4.1868 kJ/kg = 1.8 Btu/lbm
  • 1 dm3 (Liter) = 10-3 m3 = 0.03532 ft3 = 1.308x10-3 yd3 = 0.220 Imp gal (UK) = 0.2642 Gallons (US)

Related Topics

  • HVAC Systems - Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems
  • Combustion - Boiler house topics - fuels like oil, gas, coal, wood - chimneys, safety valves, tanks - combustion efficiency

Related Documents

Search the Engineering ToolBox

Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Edition - Online 3D modeling!

3D Engineering ToolBox - draw and model technical applications

Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Edition - add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping and more - to your SketchUp model - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro. Add from the Sketchup Extension Warehouse!

Translate the Engineering ToolBox!
About the Engineering ToolBox!