ASME B31 Pressure Piping - Overview
A survey of one of the most important pressure pipe codes - ASME B31, earlier known as ANSI B31.
B31 Code for pressure piping, developed by American Society of Mechanical Engineers - ASME, covers Power Piping, Fuel Gas Piping, Process Piping, Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids, Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components and Building Services Piping. ASME B31 was earlier known as ANSI B31.
B31.1 - 2012 - Power Piping
Piping for industrial plants and marine applications. This code prescribes minimum requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, erection, test, and inspection of power and auxiliary service piping systems for electric generation stations, industrial institutional plants, central and district heating plants.
The code covers boiler external piping for power boilers and high temperature, high pressure water boilers in which steam or vapor is generated at a pressure of more than 15 psig (100 kPa gage) and high temperature water is generated at pressures exceeding 160 psig (1103 kPa gage) and/or temperatures exceeding 250 oF (120 oC).
B31.2 - 1968 - Fuel Gas Piping
This has been withdrawn as a National Standard and replaced by ANSI/NFPA Z223.1, but B31.2 is still available from ASME and is a good reference for the design of gas piping systems (from the meter to the appliance).
B31.3 - 2012 - Process Piping
Design of chemical and petroleum plants and refineries processing chemicals and hydrocarbons, water and steam. This Code contains rules for piping typically found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals.
This Code prescribes requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection, and testing of piping. This Code applies to piping for all fluids including: (1) raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals; (2) petroleum products; (3) gas, steam, air and water; (4) fluidized solids; (5) refrigerants; and (6) cryogenic fluids. Also included is piping which interconnects pieces or stages within a packaged equipment assembly.
B31.4 - 2012 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids
This Code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, construction, assembly, inspection, and testing of piping transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, carbon dioxide, liquid alcohol, liquid anhydrous ammonia and liquid petroleum products between producers' lease facilities, tank farms, natural gas processing plants, refineries, stations, ammonia plants, terminals (marine, rail and truck) and other delivery and receiving points.
Piping consists of pipe, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, relief devices, fittings and the pressure containing parts of other piping components. It also includes hangers and supports, and other equipment items necessary to prevent overstressing the pressure containing parts. It does not include support structures such as frames of buildings, buildings stanchions or foundations
Requirements for offshore pipelines are found in Chapter IX. Also included within the scope of this Code are:
- (A) Primary and associated auxiliary liquid petroleum and liquid anhydrous ammonia piping at pipeline terminals (marine, rail and truck), tank farms, pump stations, pressure reducing stations and metering stations, including scraper traps, strainers, and prover loop;
- (B) Storage and working tanks including pipe-type storage fabricated from pipe and fittings, and piping interconnecting these facilities;
- (C) Liquid petroleum and liquid anhydrous ammonia piping located on property which has been set aside for such piping within petroleum refinery, natural gasoline, gas processing, ammonia, and bulk plants;
- (D) Those aspects of operation and maintenance of liquid pipeline systems relating to the safety and protection of the general public, operating company personnel, environment, property and the piping systems.
B31.5 - 2013 - Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components
This Code prescribes requirements for the materials, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, test, and inspection of refrigerant, heat transfer components, and secondary coolant piping for temperatures as low as -320 deg F (-196 deg C), whether erected on the premises or factory assembled, except as specifically excluded in the following paragraphs.
Users are advised that other piping Code Sections may provide requirements for refrigeration piping in their respective jurisdictions.
This Code shall not apply to:
- (a) any self- contained or unit systems subject to the requirements of Underwriters Laboratories or other nationally recognized testing laboratory:
- (b) water piping;
- (c) piping designed for external or internal gage pressure not exceeding 15 psi (105 kPa) regardless of size; or
- (d) pressure vessels, compressors, or pumps,
but does include all connecting refrigerant and secondary coolant piping starting at the first joint adjacent to such apparatus.
B31.8 - 2012 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
This Code covers the design, fabrication, installation, inspection, and testing of pipeline facilities used for the transportation of gas. This Code also covers safety aspects of the operation and maintenance of those facilities.
B31.8S - 2012 - Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines
This Standard applies to on-shore pipeline systems constructed with ferrous materials and that transport gas.
Pipeline system means all parts of physical facilities through which gas is transported, including pipe, valves, appurtenances attached to pipe, compressor units, metering stations, regulator stations, delivery stations, holders and fabricated assemblies.
The principles and processes embodied in integrity management are applicable to all pipeline systems. This Standard is specifically designed to provide the operator (as defined in section 13) with the information necessary to develop and implement an effective integrity management program utilizing proven industry practices and processes.
The processes and approaches within this Standard are applicable to the entire pipeline system.
B31.9 - 2011 - Building Services Piping
This Code Section has rules for the piping in industrial, institutional, commercial and public buildings, and multi-unit residences, which does not require the range of sizes, pressures, and temperatures covered in B31.1.
This Code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, installation, inspection, examination and testing of piping systems for building services. It includes piping systems in the building or within the property limits.
B31.11 - 2002 - Slurry Transportation Piping Systems
Design, construction, inspection, security requirements of slurry piping systems.
Covers piping systems that transport aqueous slurries of no hazardous materials, such as coal, mineral ores and other solids between a slurry processing plant and the receiving plant.
B31.12 - 2011 - Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines
Gaseous and liquid hydrogen service and to pipelines in gaseous hydrogen service.
B31G - 2009 - Manual for Determining Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines
A supplement To B31 Code-Pressure Piping
• Codes and Standards
Piping codes and standards - ASME, ANSI, ASTM, AGA, API, AWWA, BS, ISO, DIN and more..
• Pressure Ratings
Pressure ratings of pipes and tubes and their fittings - carbon steel , stainless steel, plastic, copper and more.
Aluminum Tubing - Allowable Pressure
Allowable pressure for aluminum tubes.
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
ANSI provides a forum for development of American national standards.
ANSI B16.5 - Steel Pipe Flanges - Pressure and Temperature Ratings - Group 1.2.
Pressure (psig) and temperature ratings for steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings
ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASME is one of the leading organizations in the world developing codes and standards.
ASME - International Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
The International Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code safety rules governing design, fabrication, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels, and nuclear power plant components during construction.
ASME - Performance Test Codes
The ASME Performance Test Codes provide standard directions and rules for conducting and reporting tests.
ASME - Valve Standards
An overview of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers - ASME - valve standards.
ASME B31.9 Building Services Piping - Working Pressure and Temperature Limits
The working pressure and temperature limits of ASME Code B31.9 - Building Services Piping.
ASME/ANSI B16 Standards for Pipes and Fittings
The ASME B16 standards covers pipes and fittings in cast iron , cast bronze, wrought copper and steel.
ASME/ANSI B36.10/19 - Carbon, Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipes - Dimensions - Metric Units
Pipe sizes, inside and outside diameters, wall thickness, schedules, weight and weight of pipe filled with water - Metric Units.
Carbon Steel Flanges - Group 1.1 Pressure and Temperature Ratings
Maximum temperature and pressure ratings of flanges conforming dimensions ASME B16.5 and materials specification ASTM A-105.
Carbon Steel Pipes - Pressure and Temperature Ratings, Imperial Units
Pressure (psig) and temperature (deg F) ratings for A-53 B and A-106 B, A333, A334 and API 5L carbon steel pipes - temperatures ranging 100 oF - 700 oF.
Carbon Steel Pipes - Pressure and Temperature Ratings, Metric Units
Pressure (kPa) and temperature (oC) ratings of ASTM A-106, API 5L and ASTM A-53 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipes - temperatures ranging -29 oC - 450 oC.
Pipe Class Ratings vs. Pressure Numbers (PN)
Pressure numbers (PN) vs. flange class designations.
Piping - Codes & Standards
Piping codes and standards.
Steel Tubes - Working Pressures vs. Size
Normal maximum working pressures for steel tubes - in psi (lb/in2) and kPa (kN/m2).
Threads commonly used in Piping
Piping thread standards.
Rapidly closing or opening valves - or starting stopping pumps - may cause pressure transients in pipelines known as surge or water hammers.