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Force Ratio

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A machine is a device that can change the magnitude and line of the action of force.

Examples of machines are

A simple machine amplifies the input (effort) force to a larger output (load) force. The force ratio can be expressed as

Fr = F / S                             (1)


Fr = force ratio - mechanical advantage

F = load force (N, lbf)

S = effort force (N, lbf)

Example - Force Ratio for Pulley

The effort force for a pulley with 4 ropes, no friction loss (μ = 1) and load 100 kg is calculated to 245 N.

The force ratio can be estimated to

Fr = (100 kg) (9.81 m/s2) / (245 N)

    = 4

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