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Heat fluxes for various cooling or heat transfer modes.
Cooling modes and maximum heat transfer flux:
Cooling Mode - Heat Flux
|Cooling Mode||Heat Flux|
|Free Convection Air ||0.5 |
|Forced Convection Air ||5 |
|Free Convection Immersion ||10 |
|Forced Convection Immersion ||500 |
|Forced Convection Boiling ||1000 |
|Impingement Air ||10 |
|Jet Immersion, single phase ||400 |
|Jet Immersion, boiling ||900 |
- 1 Btu/ ft2 h = 3.1525 W/m2
Based on 85oC surface temperature and 20oC ambient temperature.
- Work, heat and energy systems.
- Radiation heat emissivity of unoxidized, oxidized and polished aluminum.
- Conductive heat transfer takes place in a solid if there is a temperature gradient.
- Average overall heat transmission coefficients for fluid and surface combinations like Water to Air, Water to Water, Air to Air, Steam to Water and more.
- Heat transfer due to emission of electromagnetic waves is known as thermal radiation.
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